What are the negative effects of smoking?
Smokers have an increased risk of the following:
- Lung cancer
- Lung disease
- Heart attack
- Heart disease
- Oral cancer
- Bladder cancer
- Pancreatic cancer
- Cervical cancer
- Pregnancy complications
- Low birth weight babies
- Early menopause
- Lower estrogen level for women
- Facial wrinkles
Children of smokers have an increased risk of the following:
Benowitz NL. Tobacco. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 30.
Reviewed By: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.
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