Nitric acid poisoning
Nitric acid is a poisonous clear-to-yellow colored liquid. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in nitric acid.
This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or a local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222.
- Substances used to clean metals (such as gun barrels)
Note: This list may not be all inclusive.
Symptoms from swallowing nitric acid may include:
- Abdominal pain - severe
- Burns to skin or mouth
- Mouth pain - severe
- Rapid drop in blood pressure (shock)
- Throat swelling, which leads to breathing difficulty
- Throat pain - severe
- Vomiting, bloody
Symptoms from breathing in (inhaling) nitric acid may include:
- Bluish-colored lips and fingernails
- Chest tightness
- Coughing up blood
- Low blood pressure
- Rapid pulse
- Shortness of breath
Seek immediate medical help. DO NOT make a person throw up unless told to do so by Poison Control or a health care professional.
If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a health care provider. Give 4 to 6 ounces of milk of magnesia, if possible.
DO NOT give water or milk if the person is having symptoms (such as vomiting, convulsions, or a decreased level of alertness) that make it hard to swallow.
If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.
Before Calling Emergency
The following information is helpful for the emergency responders:
- The person's age, weight, and condition
- The name of the product (and ingredients and strengths, if known)
- The time it was swallowed or inhaled
- The amount swallowed or inhaled
However, DO NOT delay calling for help if this information is not immediately available.
Poison Control What to Expect at the Emergency Room
In the United States, call 1-800-222-1222 to speak with a local poison control center. This hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions.
This is a free and confidential service. You should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to be an emergency. You can call for any reason, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
The health care provider will measure and monitor vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure. The person may receive:
- Airway support, including oxygen, breathing tube through the mouth (intubation), and breathing machine (ventilator)
- Blood and urine tests
- Camera down the throat (endoscopy) to see burns in the food pipe (esophagus) and stomach
- Chest x-ray
- EKG (electrocardiogram, or heart tracing)
- Fluids through a vein (intravenous or IV)
- Medicines to treat symptoms
- Tube through the nose into the stomach to suction (aspirate) any remaining acid
Hospital admission may be necessary to continue treatment. Surgery may be required if the esophagus, stomach, or intestines have developed holes (perforation) from exposure to the acid.
How well a person does depends on the amount of poison swallowed, how concentrated the poison is, and how quickly treatment was received. The faster a person gets medical help, the better the chance for recovery. Permanent injury and disability may occur.
Wax PM, Young A. Caustics. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 153.
|Review Date: 1/13/2015
Reviewed By: Jacob L. Heller, MD, MHA, Emergency Medicine, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.