A nightmare is a bad dream that brings out strong feelings of fear, terror, distress, or anxiety.
Causes of Nightmares
Nightmares usually begin before age 10 and are most often considered a normal part of childhood. They tend to be more common in girls than boys. Nightmares may be triggered by seemingly routine events, such as starting at a new school, taking a trip, or a mild illness in a parent.
Nightmares may continue into adulthood. They can be just one way our brain has of dealing with the stresses and fears of everyday life. One or more nightmares over a short period of time may be caused by:
- A major life event, such as the loss of a loved one or a traumatic event
- Increased stress at home or work
Nightmares may also be triggered by:
- A new drug prescribed by your health care provider
- Abrupt alcohol withdrawal
- Drinking too much alcohol
- Eating just before going to bed
- Illegal street drugs
- Illness with a fever
- Over-the-counter sleep aids and medicines
- Stopping certain drugs, such as sleeping pills or narcotic pain pills
Repeated nightmares may also be a sign of:
- Breathing disorder in sleep (sleep apnea)
- Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which can occur after you have seen or experienced a traumatic event that involved the threat of injury or death
- More severe anxiety disorders or depression
- Sleep disorder (for example, narcolepsy or sleep terror disorder)
Stress is a normal part of life. In small amounts, stress is good. It can motivate you and help you get more done. But too much stress can be harmful.
If you are under stress, ask for support from friends and relatives. Talking about what is on your mind can help.
Other tips include:
- Follow a regular fitness routine, with aerobic exercise, if possible. You will find that you will be able to fall asleep faster, sleep more deeply, and wake up feeling more refreshed.
- Limit caffeine and alcohol.
- Make more time for your personal interests and hobbies.
- Try relaxation techniques, such as guided imagery, listening to music, doing yoga, or meditating. With some practice, these techniques could help you reduce stress.
- Listen to your body when it tells you to slow down or take a break.
When to Contact a Health Professional
If your nightmares started shortly after you began taking a new medication, contact your health care provider. He or she will let you know whether to stop taking that medication.
For nightmares caused by the effects of street drugs or regular alcohol use, ask for advice from your doctor on the safest and most effective way to quit.
Contact your health care provider if:
- You have nightmares more than once a week.
- Nightmares stop you from getting a good night's rest, or from keeping up with your daily activities for a long period.
What to Expect at Your Office Visit
Your health care provider will examine you and ask questions about the nightmares you are having. Next steps may include:
- Certain tests
- Changes in your medicines
- New medicines to help with some of your symptoms
- Referral to a mental health provider
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, Va: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013.
Aurora RN, Zak RS, Auerbach SH, et al. Best practice guide for the treatment of nightmare disorder in adults. J Clin Sleep Med. 2010;6:389-401.
Chokroverty S, Avidan AY. Sleep and its disorders. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 68.
|Review Date: 2/24/2014
Reviewed By: Fred K. Berger, MD, Addiction and Forensic Psychiatrist, Scripps Memorial Hospital, La Jolla, California. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.