Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid
Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid gland is a procedure to remove thyroid cells for examination. The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped gland located inside the front of the lower neck.
How is the Test Performed?
This test may be done in the health care provider's office or in a hospital. Numbing medicine (anesthesia) may or may not be used because the needle is very thin.
You lie on your back with a pillow under your shoulders and your neck extended. The biopsy site is cleaned. A thin needle is inserted into the thyroid, and a sample of thyroid cells and fluid are removed. The needle is then taken out.
Pressure is applied to the biopsy site to stop any bleeding. The site is then covered with a bandage.
Preparation for the Test
Tell your health care provider if you have drug allergies, bleeding problems, or are pregnant. You should also make sure your health care provider has a current list of all medicines you take, including herbal remedies and over-the-counter drugs.
A few days to a week before surgery, you may be asked to stop taking medicines that make it harder for your blood to clot. Talk with your doctor before stopping any drugs. The drugs you may need to stop taking include:
- Clopidogrel (Plavix)
- Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin)
- Naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn)
- Warfarin (Coumadin)
How the Test will Feel
If numbing medicine is used, you may feel a sting as the needle is inserted and the medicine is injected.
As the needle passes into the thyroid, you may feel some pressure, but it should not be painful.
You may have slight discomfort in your neck afterward. You may also have slight bruising, which soon goes away.
Why is the Test Performed?
Normal Results for Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid
The thyroid tissue looks normal and the cells do not appear to be cancer under a microscope.
What Abnormal Results Mean
Abnormal results may mean:
Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid Risks
The main risk is bleeding into or around the thyroid gland. If bleeding is severe, there may be pressure on the windpipe (trachea). This problem is rare.
Lai SY, Mandel SJ, Weber RS. Management of thyroid neoplasms. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund VJ, et al., eds. Cummings Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Mosby; 2010:chap 124.
Schlumberger MJ, Fuketti S, Hay ID. Nontoxic diffuse and nodular goiter and thyroid neoplasia. In: McDermott MT, ed. Endocrine Secrets. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 14.
|Review Date: 4/9/2014
Reviewed By: Debra G. Wechter, MD, FACS, General Surgery practice specializing in breast cancer, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, Washington. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.