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Azo Gantrisin (phenazopyridine / sulfisoxazole) Disease Interactions

There are 12 disease interactions with Azo Gantrisin (phenazopyridine / sulfisoxazole):

Major

Phenazopyridine (Includes Azo Gantrisin) ↔ G-6-Pd Deficiency

Severe Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: G-6-PD Deficiency

Patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency may be at increased risk for phenazopyridine-induced methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia. These conditions have occurred rarely in other patients, except due to acute phenazopyridine overdose or impaired renal function. Therapy with phenazopyridine should be administered cautiously in patients with G-6-PD deficiency.

References

  1. "Product Information. Pyridium (phenazopyridine)." Warner Chilcott Laboratories, Rockaway, NJ.
Major

Phenazopyridine (Includes Azo Gantrisin) ↔ Hepatitis

Severe Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Liver Disease

The use of phenazopyridine is contraindicated in patients with severe hepatitis. Rare cases of hepatotoxicity have been associated with phenazopyridine, usually at overdose levels. Hypersensitivity hepatitis has also been reported. Therapy with phenazopyridine should be administered cautiously in patients with impaired hepatic function.

References

  1. "Product Information. Pyridium (phenazopyridine)." Warner Chilcott Laboratories, Rockaway, NJ.
Major

Phenazopyridine (Includes Azo Gantrisin) ↔ Renal Dysfunction

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Renal Dysfunction

The use of phenazopyridine is contraindicated in patients with impaired renal function. Phenazopyridine is primarily eliminated unchanged by the kidney and may accumulate to toxic levels during prolonged administration in such patients. Reported cases of toxicity due to overdosage have resulted in acute renal failure and methemoglobinemia. Likewise, administration of phenazopyridine to patients with preexisting renal failure has led to methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia. Phenazopyridine toxicity may be associated with a yellowish tinge of the skin or sclera.

References

  1. "Product Information. Pyridium (phenazopyridine)." Warner Chilcott Laboratories, Rockaway, NJ.
Major

Sulfonamides (Includes Azo Gantrisin) ↔ Hematologic Toxicity

Severe Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Bone Marrow Depression/Low Blood Counts, G-6-PD Deficiency

The use of sulfonamides has been associated with hematologic toxicity, including methemoglobinemia, sulfhemoglobinemia, leukopenia, granulocytopenia, eosinophilia, hemolytic anemia, aplastic anemia, purpura, clotting disorder, thrombocytopenia, hypofibrinogenemia, and hypoprothrombinemia. Acute dose-related hemolytic anemia may occur during the first week of therapy due to sensitization, while chronic hemolytic anemia may occur with prolonged use. Patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency should be observed closely for signs of hemolytic anemia. Therapy with sulfonamides should be administered cautiously in patients with preexisting blood dyscrasias or bone marrow suppression. Complete blood counts should be obtained regularly, especially during prolonged therapy (>2 weeks), and patients should be instructed to immediately report any signs or symptoms suggestive of blood dyscrasia such as fever, sore throat, local infection, bleeding, pallor, dizziness, or jaundice.

References

  1. "Product Information. Gantrisin (sulfisoxazole)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  2. Mitrane MP, Singh A, Seibold JR "Cholestasis and fatal agranulocytosis complicating sulfasalazine therapy: case report and review of the literature." J Rheumatol 13 (1986): 969-72
  3. Kuipers EJ, Vellenga E, de Wolf JT, Hazenberg BP "Sulfasalazine induced agranulocytosis treated with GM-CSF." J Rheumatol 19 (1992): 621-2
  4. Wheelan KR, Cooper B, Stone MJ "Multiple haematologic abnormalities associated with sulfasalazine." Ann Intern Med 97 (1982): 726-7
  5. Keisu M, Ekman E "Sulfasalazine associated agranulocytosis in sweden 1972-1989: clinical features, and estimation of its incidence." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 43 (1992): 215-8
  6. Bates CM "HIV medicine: drug side effects and interactions." Postgrad Med J 72 (1996): 30-6
  7. Mechanick JI "Coombs' positive hemolytic anemia following sulfasalazine therapy in ulcerative colitis: case reports, review, and discussion of pathogenesis." Mt Sinai J Med 52 (1985): 667-70
  8. Peppercorn MA "Sulfasalazine. Pharmacology, clinical use, toxicity, and related new drug development." Ann Intern Med 101 (1984): 377-86
  9. Finland M, Strauss E, Peterson O "Sulfadiazine." JAMA 251 (1984): 1467-74
  10. Betkowski AS, Lubin A "Sulfamethoxazole-related antiplatelet antibody." Blood 82 (1993): 1683
  11. Youssef PP, Bertouch JV "Sulphasalazine induced aplastic anaemia." Aust N Z J Med 22 (1992): 391-2
  12. Barak S, Shaked Y, Bar A, Samra Y "Drug-induced post-surgical hemorrhage resulting from trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole." Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 18 (1989): 206-7
  13. Guillemin F, Aussedat R, Guerci A, Lederlin P, Trechot P, Pourel J "Fatal agranulocytosis in sulfasalazine treated rheumatoid arthritis." J Rheumatol 16 (1989): 1166-7
  14. Damergis J, Stoker J, Abadie J "Methemoglobinemia after sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim therapy." JAMA 249 (1983): 590-1
  15. "Product Information. Zonegran (zonisamide)" Elan Pharmaceuticals, S. San Francisco, CA.
  16. Gales BJ, Gales MA "Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor for sulfasalazine-induced agranulocytosis." Ann Pharmacother 27 (1993): 1052-4
  17. Pena JM, Gonzalez-Garcia JJ, Garcia-Alegria J, Barbado FJ, Vazquez JJ "Thrombocytopenia and sulfasalazine." Ann Intern Med 102 (1985): 277-8
  18. Chan M, Beale D, Moorhead J "Acute megaloblastosis due to cotrimoxazole." Br J Clin Pract 34 (1980): 87-8
  19. "Product Information. Gantranol (sulfamethoxazole)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  20. Davies GE, Palek J "Selective erythroid and magakaryocytic aplasia after sulfasalazine administration." Arch Intern Med 140 (1980): 1122
  21. "Product Information. Sulfadiazine (sulfadiazine)." Eon Labs Manufacturing Inc, Laurelton, NY.
  22. Hopkinson ND, Garcia FS, Gumpel JM "Haematological side-effects pf sulphasalazine in inflammatory arthritis." Br J Rheumatol 28 (1989): 414-7
  23. Logan EC, Williamson LM, Ryrie DR "Sulphasalazine associated pancytopenia may be caused by acute folate deficiency." Gut 27 (1986): 868-72
  24. "Product Information. Azulfidine (sulfasalazine)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  25. Jacobson IM, Kelsey PB, Blyden GT, Demirjian ZN, Isselbacher KJ "Sulfasalazine-induced agranulocytosis." Am J Gastroenterol 80 (1985): 118-21
View all 25 references
Major

Sulfonamides (Includes Azo Gantrisin) ↔ Hypersensitivity Reactions

Severe Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Asthma, Allergies, HIV Infection

The use of sulfonamides is associated with large increases in the risk of Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis and other serious dermatologic reactions, although these phenomena are rare as a whole. Hepatitis, pneumonitis, and interstitial nephritis have also occurred in association with sulfonamide hypersensitivity. Therapy with sulfonamides should be administered cautiously in patients with severe allergies, bronchial asthma or AIDS, since these patients may be at increased risk for potentially severe hypersensitivity reactions. Patients should be instructed to promptly report signs and symptoms that may precede the onset of cutaneous manifestations of the Stevens-Johnson syndrome, such as high fever, severe headache, stomatitis, conjunctivitis, rhinitis, urethritis, and balanitis. Sulfonamide therapy should be stopped at once if a rash develops.

References

  1. "Product Information. Zonegran (zonisamide)" Elan Pharmaceuticals, S. San Francisco, CA.
  2. Averbuch M, Halpern Z, Hallak A, Topilsky M, Levo Y "Sulfasalazine pneumonitis." Am J Gastroenterol 80 (1985): 343-5
  3. Fich A, Schwartz J, Braverman D, Zifroni A, Rachmilewitz D "Sulfasalazine hepatotoxicity." Am J Gastroenterol 79 (1984): 401-2
  4. Stevenson D, Christie D, Haas J "Hepatic injury in a child caused by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole." Pediatrics 61 (1978): 864-6
  5. Pisanty S, Brayer L "Erythema multiforme-like eruption due to sulfadiazine." J Dent Med 20 (1965): 154-7
  6. Fischl M, Dickinson G, LaVoie L "Safety and efficacy of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim chemoprophylaxis for pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS." JAMA 259 (1988): 1185-9
  7. Carbone L, Bendixen B, Appel G "Sulfadiazine-associated obstructive nephropathy occurring in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome." Am J Kidney Dis 12 (1988): 72-5
  8. Valcke Y, Pauwels R, Van der Straeten M "Bronchoalveolar lavage in acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by sulfasalazine." Chest 92 (1987): 572-3
  9. Finland M, Strauss E, Peterson O "Sulfadiazine." JAMA 251 (1984): 1467-74
  10. Goadsby P, Donaghy A, Lloyd A, Wakefield D "Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and sulfadiazine-associated acute renal failure." Ann Intern Med 107 (1987): 783-4
  11. Hamadeh MA, Atkinson J, Smith LJ "Sulfasalazine-induced pulmonary disease." Chest 101 (1992): 1033-7
  12. Losek JD, Werlin SL "Sulfasalazine hepatotoxicity." Am J Dis Child 135 (1981): 1070-2
  13. Heer M, Altorfer J, Burger H, Walti M "Bullous esophageal lesions due to co-trimoxazole: an immune-mediated process?" Gastroenterology 88 (1985): 1954-7
  14. Johnson M, Goodwin D, Shands J "Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole anaphylactoid reactions in patients with AIDS: case reports and literature review." Pharmacotherapy 10 (1990): 413-16
  15. Rubin R "Sulfasalazine-induced fulminant hepatic failure and necrotizing pancreatitis." Am J Gastroenterol 89 (1994): 789-91
  16. Kanner RS, Tedesco FJ, Kalser MH "Azulfidine- (sulfasalazine-) induced hepatic injury." Am J Dig Dis 23 (1978): 956-8
  17. Wang KK, Bowyer BA, Fleming CR, Schroeder KW "Pulmonary infiltrates and eosinophilia associated with sulfasalazine." Mayo Clin Proc 59 (1984): 343-6
  18. Rudra T, Webb D, Evans A "Acute tubular necrosis following co-trimoxazole therapy." Nephron 53 (1989): 85-6
  19. Marinac JS, Stanford JF "A severe hypersensitive reaction to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus." Clin Infect Dis 16 (1993): 178-9
  20. Ulstad D, Ampel N, Shon B, Galgiani JN, Cutcher AB "Reaction after re-exposure to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole." Chest 95 (1989): 937-8
  21. Haines JD, Jr "Hepatotoxicity after treatment with sulfasalazine." Postgrad Med 79 (1986): 193-4,
  22. "Product Information. Sulfadiazine (sulfadiazine)." Eon Labs Manufacturing Inc, Laurelton, NY.
  23. Poland GA, Love KR "Marked atypical lymphocytosis, hepatitis, and skin rash in sulfasalazine drug allergy." Am J Med 81 (1986): 707-8
  24. "Product Information. Gantranol (sulfamethoxazole)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  25. Gremse DA, Bancroft J, Moyer MS "Sulfasalazine hypersensitivity with hepatotoxicity, thrombocytopenia, and erythroid hypoplasia." J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 9 (1989): 261-3
  26. Steinbrecher U, Mishkin S "Sulfamethoxazole-induced hepatic injury." Dig Dis Sci 26 (1981): 756-9
  27. Hofer T, Becker EW, Weigand K, Berg PA "Demonstration of sensititzed lymphocytes to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and ofloxacin in a patient with cholestatic hepatitis." J Hepatol 15 (1992): 262-3
  28. Roujeau JC, Kelly JP, Naldi L, et al. "Medication use and the risk of Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis." N Engl J Med 333 (1995): 1600-7
  29. Gibson J "Recurrent trimethoprim-associated fixed skin eruption." Br Med J 284 (1982): 1529-30
  30. Holdcroft C, Ellison R "Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole reaction simulating pneumocystis carinii pneumonia." AIDS 5 (1991): 1029-42
  31. Taffet SL, Das KM "Sulfasalazine. Adverse effects and desensitization." Dig Dis Sci 28 (1983): 833-42
  32. Horak J, Mertl L, Hrabal P "Severe liver injuries due to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and sulfamethoxydiazine." Hepatogastroenterology 31 (1984): 199-200
  33. Marinos G, Riley J, Painter DM, McCaughan GW "Sulfasalazine-induced fulminant hepatic failure." J Clin Gastroenterol 14 (1992): 132-5
  34. Whittington R "Toxic epidermal necrolysis and co-trimoxazole." Lancet 2 (1989): 574
  35. "Product Information. Azulfidine (sulfasalazine)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  36. Smith E, Light J, Filo R, Yum M "Interstitial nephritis caused by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in renal transplant recipients." JAMA 244 (1980): 360-1
  37. Bates CM "HIV medicine: drug side effects and interactions." Postgrad Med J 72 (1996): 30-6
  38. Leroux JL, Ghezail M, Chertok P, Blotman F "Hypersensitivity reactions to sulfasalazine: skin rash, fever, hepatitis and activated lymphocytes." Clin Exp Rheumatol 10 (1992): 427
  39. Sotolongo RP, Neefe LI, Rudzki C, Ishak KG "Hypersensitivity reaction to sulfasalazine with severe hepatotoxicity." Gastroenterology 75 (1978): 95-9
  40. Peppercorn MA "Sulfasalazine. Pharmacology, clinical use, toxicity, and related new drug development." Ann Intern Med 101 (1984): 377-86
  41. Ribe J, Benkov KJ, Thung SN, Shen SC, LeLeiko NS "Fatal massive hepatic necrosis: a probable hypersensitivity reaction to sulfasalazine." Am J Gastroenterol 81 (1986): 205-8
  42. Pearl RK, Nelson RL, Prasad ML, Orsay CP, Abcarian H "Serious complications of sulfasalazine." Dis Colon Rectum 29 (1986): 201-2
  43. Namias A, Bhalotra R, Donowitz M "Reversible sulfasalazine-induced granulomatous hepatitis." J Clin Gastroenterol 3 (1981): 193-8
  44. Kawada A, Kobayashi T, Noguchi H, Hiruma M, Ishibashi A, Marshall J "Fixed drug eruption induced by sulfasalazine." Contact Dermatitis 34 (1996): 155-6
  45. Moore RD, Fortgang I, Keruly J, Chaisson RE "Adverse events from drug therapy for human immunodeficiency virus disease." Am J Med 101 (1996): 34-40
  46. Tenant-Flowers M, Boyle M, Carey D, et al "Sulphadiazine desenitization in patients with AIDS and cerebral toxoplasmosis." AIDS 5 (1991): 311-5
  47. Faintuch J, Mott CB, Machado MC "Pancreatitis and pancreatic necrosis during sulfasalazine therapy." Int Surg 70 (1985): 271-2
  48. "Product Information. Gantrisin (sulfisoxazole)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  49. Robson M, Levi J, Dolberg L, Rosenfeld J "Acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis following sulfadiazine therapy." Isr J Med Sci 6 (1970): 561-6
  50. Yaffe BH, Korelitz BI "Sulfasalazine pneumonitis." Am J Gastroenterol 78 (1983): 493-4
  51. Williams T, Eidus L, Thomas P "Fibrosing alveolitis, bronchiolitis obliterans, and sulfasalazine therapy." Chest 81 (1982): 766-8
  52. Kelly W, Dooley D, Lattuada C, Smith C "A severe, unusual reaction to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus." Clin Infect Dis 14 (1992): 1034-9
  53. Gabazza EC, Taguchi O, Yamakami T, Machishi M, Ibata H, Suzuki S, Matsumoto K, Kitagawa T, Yamamoto J "Pulmonary infiltrates and skin pigmentation associated with sulfasalazine." Am J Gastroenterol 87 (1992): 1654-7
View all 53 references
Major

Sulfonamides (Includes Azo Gantrisin) ↔ Liver Disease

Severe Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Liver Disease

Hepatotoxicity, including jaundice, diffuse hepatocellular necrosis, hypersensitivity hepatitis and hepatic failure, has rarely been reported in patients receiving sulfonamides. In addition, sulfonamides are partially metabolized by the liver and may accumulate in patients with hepatic impairment. Therapy with sulfonamides should be administered cautiously in patients with liver disease.

References

  1. Madsen S "A comparative study of the excretion of sulfonamide-metabolites in cases of renal failure and hepatitis." Chemotherapy 11 (1966): 1-9
  2. Gremse DA, Bancroft J, Moyer MS "Sulfasalazine hypersensitivity with hepatotoxicity, thrombocytopenia, and erythroid hypoplasia." J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 9 (1989): 261-3
  3. Sotolongo RP, Neefe LI, Rudzki C, Ishak KG "Hypersensitivity reaction to sulfasalazine with severe hepatotoxicity." Gastroenterology 75 (1978): 95-9
  4. "Product Information. Gantrisin (sulfisoxazole)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  5. Klotz U "Clinical pharmacokinetics of sulphasalazine, its metabolites and other prodrugs of 5-aminosalicylic acid." Clin Pharmacokinet 10 (1985): 285-302
  6. "Product Information. Azulfidine (sulfasalazine)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  7. Marinos G, Riley J, Painter DM, McCaughan GW "Sulfasalazine-induced fulminant hepatic failure." J Clin Gastroenterol 14 (1992): 132-5
  8. Das KM, Chowdhury JR, Zapp B, Fara JW "Small bowel absorption of sulfasalazine and its hepatic metabolism in human beings, cats, and rats." Gastroenterology 77 (1979): 280-4
  9. Ortengren B, Magni L, Bergan T "Development of sulphonamide-trimethoprim combinations for urinary tract infections. part 3: pharmacokinetic characterization of sulphadiazine and sulphamethoxazole." Infection 7 (1979): s371-81
  10. Mannisto PT, Mantyla R, Mattila J, Nykanen S, Lamminsivu U "Comparison of pharmacokinetics of sulphadiazine and sulphamethoxazole after intravenous infusion." J Antimicrob Chemother 9 (1982): 461-70
  11. Namias A, Bhalotra R, Donowitz M "Reversible sulfasalazine-induced granulomatous hepatitis." J Clin Gastroenterol 3 (1981): 193-8
  12. Mannisto PT, Mantyla R, Mattila J, Nykanen S, Lamminsivu U "Comparison of pharmacokinetics of sulphadiazine and sulphamethoxazole after intravenous infusion." J Antimicrob Chemother 9 (1982): 461-70
  13. Kowdley K, Keeffe E, Fawaz K "Prolonged cholestasis due to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole." Gastroenterology 102 (1992): 2148-50
  14. Peppercorn MA "Sulfasalazine. Pharmacology, clinical use, toxicity, and related new drug development." Ann Intern Med 101 (1984): 377-86
  15. Basista MP "Randomized study to evaluate efficacy and safety of ofloxacin vs trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection." Urology 37 (1991): 21-7
  16. Finland M, Strauss E, Peterson O "Sulfadiazine." JAMA 116 (1941): 2641-7
  17. Ransohoff D, Jacobs G "Terminal hepatic failure following a small dose of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim." Gastroenterology 80 (1981): 816-9
  18. Steinbrecher U, Mishkin S "Sulfamethoxazole-induced hepatic injury." Dig Dis Sci 26 (1981): 756-9
  19. Horak J, Mertl L, Hrabal P "Severe liver injuries due to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and sulfamethoxydiazine." Hepatogastroenterology 31 (1984): 199-200
  20. Hekster C, Vree T "Clinical pharmacokinetics of sulphonamides and their N4-acetyl derivatives." Antibiot Chemother 31 (1982): 22-118
  21. Vergin H, Ferber H, Zimmermann I, Neurath GB "Single and multiple dose kinetics of co-tetroxazine and co-trimoxazole in patients." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 19 (1981): 350-7
  22. Leroux JL, Ghezail M, Chertok P, Blotman F "Hypersensitivity reactions to sulfasalazine: skin rash, fever, hepatitis and activated lymphocytes." Clin Exp Rheumatol 10 (1992): 427
  23. Kaplan SA, Weinfeld RE, Abruzzo CW, Lewis M "Pharmacokinetic profile of sulfisoxazole following intravenous, intramuscular, and oral administration to man." J Pharm Sci 61 (1972): 773-8
  24. Oie S, Gambertoglio JG, Fleckenstein L "Comparison of the disposition of total and unbound sulfisoxazole after single and multiple dosing." J Pharmacokinet Biopharm 10 (1982): 157-72
  25. Stevenson D, Christie D, Haas J "Hepatic injury in a child caused by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole." Pediatrics 61 (1978): 864-6
  26. Ribe J, Benkov KJ, Thung SN, Shen SC, LeLeiko NS "Fatal massive hepatic necrosis: a probable hypersensitivity reaction to sulfasalazine." Am J Gastroenterol 81 (1986): 205-8
  27. Fich A, Schwartz J, Braverman D, Zifroni A, Rachmilewitz D "Sulfasalazine hepatotoxicity." Am J Gastroenterol 79 (1984): 401-2
  28. Kremers P, Duvivier J, Heusghem C "Pharmacokinetic studies of co-trimoxazole in man after single and repeated doses." J Clin Pharmacol 14 (1974): 112-7
  29. Kanner RS, Tedesco FJ, Kalser MH "Azulfidine- (sulfasalazine-) induced hepatic injury." Am J Dig Dis 23 (1978): 956-8
  30. Boisvert A, Barbeau G, Belanger PM "Pharmacokinetics of sulfisoxazole in young and elderly subjects." Gerontology 30 (1984): 125-31
  31. Bates CM "HIV medicine: drug side effects and interactions." Postgrad Med J 72 (1996): 30-6
  32. Hofer T, Becker EW, Weigand K, Berg PA "Demonstration of sensititzed lymphocytes to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and ofloxacin in a patient with cholestatic hepatitis." J Hepatol 15 (1992): 262-3
  33. Andreasen F, Elsborg L, Husted S, Thomsen O "Pharmacokinetics of sulfadiazine and trimethoprim in man." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 14 (1978): 57-67
  34. Simma B, Meister B, Deutsch J, Sperl W, Fend F, Ofner D, Margreiter R, Vogel W "Fulminant hepatic failure in a child as a potential adverse effect of trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole." Eur J Pediatr 154 (1995): 530-3
  35. Alberti-Flor JJ, Hernandez ME, Ferrer JP, Howell S, Jeffers L "Fulminant liver failure and pancreatitis associated with the use of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim." Am J Gastroenterol 84 (1989): 1577-9
  36. Gleckman R, Gantz NM, Joubert DW "Intravenous sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim: pharmacokinetics, therapeutic indications, and adverse reactions." Pharmacotherapy 1 (1981): 206-11
  37. Taffet SL, Das KM "Sulfasalazine. Adverse effects and desensitization." Dig Dis Sci 28 (1983): 833-42
  38. Khan AK, Truelove SC, Aronson JK "The disposition and metabolism of sulphasalazine (salicylazosulphapyridine) in man." Br J Clin Pharmacol 13 (1982): 523-8
  39. Ortengren B, Fellner H, Bergan T "Development of sulphonamide-trimethoprim combinations for urinary tract infections. Part 2: Comparative pharmacokinetics of five sulphonamides." Infection 7 Suppl 4 (1979): s367-70
  40. Schroder H, Campbell DE "Absorption, metabolism, and excretion of salicylazosulfapyridine in man." Clin Pharmacol Ther 13 (1972): 539-51
  41. Losek JD, Werlin SL "Sulfasalazine hepatotoxicity." Am J Dis Child 135 (1981): 1070-2
  42. Rubin R "Sulfasalazine-induced fulminant hepatic failure and necrotizing pancreatitis." Am J Gastroenterol 89 (1994): 789-91
  43. Patel RB, Welling PG "Clinical pharmacokinetics of co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole)." Clin Pharmacokinet 5 (1980): 405-23
  44. Stachowska B, Senczuk W "Studies on kinetics of sulfadiazine and trimethoprim excretion in man." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 25 (1987): 81-5
  45. Haines JD, Jr "Hepatotoxicity after treatment with sulfasalazine." Postgrad Med 79 (1986): 193-4,
  46. Bergan T, Brodwall EK "Human pharmacokinetics of a sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim combination." Acta Med Scand 192 (1972): 483-92
  47. "Product Information. Gantranol (sulfamethoxazole)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  48. Poland GA, Love KR "Marked atypical lymphocytosis, hepatitis, and skin rash in sulfasalazine drug allergy." Am J Med 81 (1986): 707-8
  49. "Product Information. Sulfadiazine (sulfadiazine)." Eon Labs Manufacturing Inc, Laurelton, NY.
View all 49 references
Major

Sulfonamides (Includes Azo Gantrisin) ↔ Porphyria

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Porphyria

The use of sulfonamides is contraindicated in patients with porphyria, since these drugs can precipitate an acute attack.

References

  1. "Product Information. Azulfidine (sulfasalazine)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  2. Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Isselbacher KJ, Wilson JD, Martin JB, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Longo DL, eds. "Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 14th ed." New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Health Professionals Division (1998):
Major

Sulfonamides (Includes Azo Gantrisin) ↔ Renal Dysfunction

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Renal Dysfunction

Sulfonamides and their metabolites are eliminated by the kidney. Patients with renal impairment may be at greater risk for adverse effects from sulfonamides due to decreased drug clearance. Dosage adjustments may be necessary and modifications should be based on the degree of renal impairment and severity of infection. Additionally, sulfonamides may cause renal toxicity secondary to crystalluria, including uro- and nephrolithiasis, nephritis, toxic nephrosis, hematuria, proteinuria, and elevated BUN and creatinine. Hydration (8 oz. glass of water with each dose and throughout the day) and adequate urinary output (> 1.5 L/day) should be maintained during sulfonamide administration. Renal function tests and urinalysis should be performed weekly or as often as indicated by the patient's status. Rarely, alkalinization of the urine is necessary.

References

  1. Sahai J, Heimberger R, Collins K, Kaplowitz L, Polk R "Sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a reminder." Am J Med 84 (1988): 791-2
  2. Ortengren B, Magni L, Bergan T "Development of sulphonamide-trimethoprim combinations for urinary tract infections. part 3: pharmacokinetic characterization of sulphadiazine and sulphamethoxazole." Infection 7 (1979): s371-81
  3. Finland M, Strauss E, Peterson O "Sulfadiazine." JAMA 251 (1984): 1467-74
  4. Kaplan SA, Weinfeld RE, Abruzzo CW, Lewis M "Pharmacokinetic profile of sulfisoxazole following intravenous, intramuscular, and oral administration to man." J Pharm Sci 61 (1972): 773-8
  5. Shermantine M, Gambertoglio J, Amend W, Vincenti F, Oie S "Pharmacokinetics of sulfisoxazole in renal transplant patients." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 28 (1985): 535-9
  6. Robson M, Levi J, Dolberg L, Rosenfeld J "Acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis following sulfadiazine therapy." Isr J Med Sci 6 (1970): 561-6
  7. Ohnhaus EE, Spring P "Elimination kinetics of sulfadiazine in patients with normal and impaired renal function." J Pharmacokinet Biopharm 3 (1975): 171-9
  8. Marques L, Silva M, Madeira E, Santos O "Obstructive renal failure due to therapy with sulfadiazine in an AIDS patient." Nephron 62 (1992): 361
  9. Vergin H, Ferber H, Zimmermann I, Neurath GB "Single and multiple dose kinetics of co-tetroxazine and co-trimoxazole in patients." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 19 (1981): 350-7
  10. Adam W, Dawborn J "Urinary excretion and plasma levels of sulphonamides in patients with renal impairment." Australas Ann Med 19 (1970): 250-4
  11. Rieder J, Schwartz DE, Fernex M, et al "Pharmacokinetics of the antibacterial combination sulfamethoxazole plus trimethoprim in patients with normal or impaired kidney function." Antibiot Chemother 18 (1974): 148-98
  12. Hekster C, Vree T "Clinical pharmacokinetics of sulphonamides and their N4-acetyl derivatives." Antibiot Chemother 31 (1982): 22-118
  13. Bergan T, Brodwall E, Vik-Mo H, Anstad U "Pharmacokinetics of sulphadiazine, sulphamethoxazole and trimethoprim in patients with varying renal function." Infection 7 (1979): s382-7
  14. Erturk E, Casemento JB, Guertin KR, Kende AS "Bilateral acetylsulfapyridine nephrolithiasis associated with chronic sulfasalazine therapy." J Urol 151 (1994): 1605-6
  15. Patel RB, Welling PG "Clinical pharmacokinetics of co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole)." Clin Pharmacokinet 5 (1980): 405-23
  16. Ortengren B, Fellner H, Bergan T "Development of sulphonamide-trimethoprim combinations for urinary tract infections. Part 2: Comparative pharmacokinetics of five sulphonamides." Infection 7 Suppl 4 (1979): s367-70
  17. Marques LP, Silva MT, Madeira EP, Santos OR "Obstructive renal failure due to therapy with sulfadiazine in an AIDS patient." Nephron 62 (1992): 361
  18. Stachowska B, Senczuk W "Studies on kinetics of sulfadiazine and trimethoprim excretion in man." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 25 (1987): 81-5
  19. Cryst C, Hammar S "Acute granulomatous interstitial nephritis due to co-trimoxazole." Am J Nephrol 8 (1988): 483-8
  20. Bergan T, Brodwall EK, Vik-Mo H, Anstad U "Pharmacokinetics of sulphadiazine, sulphamethoxazole and trimethoprim in patients with varying renal function." Infection 7 (1979): s382-7
  21. Carbone L, Bendixen B, Appel G "Sulfadiazine-associated obstructive nephropathy occurring in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome." Am J Kidney Dis 12 (1988): 72-5
  22. Bergan T, Brodwall EK "Human pharmacokinetics of a sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim combination." Acta Med Scand 192 (1972): 483-92
  23. Boisvert A, Barbeau G, Belanger PM "Pharmacokinetics of sulfisoxazole in young and elderly subjects." Gerontology 30 (1984): 125-31
  24. Kremers P, Duvivier J, Heusghem C "Pharmacokinetic studies of co-trimoxazole in man after single and repeated doses." J Clin Pharmacol 14 (1974): 112-7
  25. Andreasen F, Elsborg L, Husted S, Thomsen O "Pharmacokinetics of sulfadiazine and trimethoprim in man." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 14 (1978): 57-67
  26. Adam WR, Henning M, Dawborn JK "Excretion of trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole in patients with renal failure." Aust N Z J Med 3 (1973): 383-7
  27. "Product Information. Azulfidine (sulfasalazine)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  28. Rudra T, Webb D, Evans A "Acute tubular necrosis following co-trimoxazole therapy." Nephron 53 (1989): 85-6
  29. "Product Information. Gantrisin (sulfisoxazole)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  30. Goadsby P, Donaghy A, Lloyd A, Wakefield D "Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and sulfadiazine-associated acute renal failure." Ann Intern Med 107 (1987): 783-4
  31. Schroder H, Campbell DE "Absorption, metabolism, and excretion of salicylazosulfapyridine in man." Clin Pharmacol Ther 13 (1972): 539-51
  32. Hein R, Brunkhorst R, Thon WF, Schedel I, Schmidt RE "Symptomatic sulfadiazine crystalluria in AIDS patients: a report of two cases." Clin Nephrol 39 (1993): 254-6
  33. Dwarakanath AD, Michael J, Allan RN "Sulphasalazine-induced renal failure." Gut 33 (1992): 1006-7
  34. Klotz U "Clinical pharmacokinetics of sulphasalazine, its metabolites and other prodrugs of 5-aminosalicylic acid." Clin Pharmacokinet 10 (1985): 285-302
  35. Smith E, Light J, Filo R, Yum M "Interstitial nephritis caused by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in renal transplant recipients." JAMA 244 (1980): 360-1
  36. Simon D, Brosius F, Rothstein D "Sulfadiazine crystalluria revisited." Arch Intern Med 150 (1990): 2379-84
  37. Gleckman R, Gantz NM, Joubert DW "Intravenous sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim: pharmacokinetics, therapeutic indications, and adverse reactions." Pharmacotherapy 1 (1981): 206-11
  38. Madsen S "A comparative study of the excretion of sulfonamide-metabolites in cases of renal failure and hepatitis." Chemotherapy 11 (1966): 1-9
  39. Cohen M, Pocelinko R "Renal transport mechanisms for the excretion of sulfisoxazole." J Pharmacol Exp Ther 185 (1973): 703-12
  40. Mannisto PT, Mantyla R, Mattila J, Nykanen S, Lamminsivu U "Comparison of pharmacokinetics of sulphadiazine and sulphamethoxazole after intravenous infusion." J Antimicrob Chemother 9 (1982): 461-70
  41. "Product Information. Gantranol (sulfamethoxazole)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  42. Molina J, Belenfant X, Doco-Lecompte T, et al "Sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria in AIDS patients with toxoplasma encephalitis." AIDS 5 (1991): 587-9
  43. Farinas MC, Echevarria S, Sampedro I, Gonzalez A, Perez del Molino A, Gonzalez-Macias J "Renal failure due to sulphadiazine in AIDS patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis." J Intern Med 233 (1993): 365-7
  44. Sasson JP, Dratch PL, Shortsleeve MJ "Renal US findings in sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria." Radiology 185 (1992): 739-40
  45. "Product Information. Sulfadiazine (sulfadiazine)." Eon Labs Manufacturing Inc, Laurelton, NY.
  46. Becker K, Jablonowski H, Haussinger D "Sulfadiazine-associated nephrotoxicity in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome." Medicine 75 (1996): 185-94
  47. Mannisto PT, Mantyla R, Mattila J, Nykanen S, Lamminsivu U "Comparison of pharmacokinetics of sulphadiazine and sulphamethoxazole after intravenous infusion." J Antimicrob Chemother 9 (1982): 461-70
  48. Christin S, Baumelou A, Bahri S, Ben Hmida M, Deray G, Jacobs C "Acute renal failure due to sulfadiazine in patients with AIDS." Nephron 55 (1990): 233-4
View all 48 references
Moderate

Antibiotics (Includes Azo Gantrisin) ↔ Colitis

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Colitis/Enteritis (Noninfectious)

Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with most antibacterial agents and may range in severity from mild to life-threatening, with an onset of up to two months following cessation of therapy. Antibiotic therapy can alter the normal flora of the colon and permit overgrowth of Clostridium difficile, whose toxin is believed to be a primary cause of antibiotic- associated colitis. The colitis is usually characterized by severe, persistent diarrhea and severe abdominal cramps, and may be associated with the passage of blood and mucus. The most common culprits are clindamycin, lincomycin, the aminopenicillins (amoxicillin, ampicillin), and the cephalosporins. Therapy with broad-spectrum antibiotics and other agents with significant antibacterial activity should be administered cautiously in patients with a history of gastrointestinal diseases, particularly colitis. There is some evidence that pseudomembranous colitis, if it occurs, may run a more severe course in these patients and that it may be associated with flares in their underlying disease activity. The offending antibiotic(s) should be discontinued if significant diarrhea occurs during therapy. Stool cultures for Clostridium difficile and stool assay for C. difficile toxin may be helpful diagnostically. A large bowel endoscopy may be considered to establish a definitive diagnosis in cases of severe diarrhea.

References

  1. Moriarty HJ, Scobie BA "Pseudomembranous colitis in a patient on rifampicin and ethambutol." N Z Med J 04/23/80 (1980): 294-5
  2. Thomas E, Mehta JB "Pseudomembranous colitis due to oxacillin therapy." South Med J 77 (1984): 532-3
  3. Bauwens JE, McFarland LV, Melcher SA "Recurrent clostridium difficile disease following ciprofloxacin use." Ann Pharmacother 31 (1997): 1090
  4. Dan M, Samra Z "Clostridium difficile colitis associated with ofloxacin therapy." Am J Med 87 (1989): 479
  5. Saadah HA "Carbenicillin and pseudomembranous enterocolitis." Ann Intern Med 93 (1980): 645
  6. Davies J, Beck E "Recurrent colitis following antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis." Postgrad Med J 57 (1981): 599-601
  7. Daly JJ, Chowdary KV "Pseudomembranous colitis secondary to metronidazole." Dig Dis Sci 28 (1983): 573-4
  8. Trexler MF, Fraser TG, Jones MP "Fulminant pseudomembranous colitis caused by clindamycin phosphate vaginal cream." Am J Gastroenterol 92 (1997): 2112-3
  9. Lyon JA "Imipenem/cilastatin: the first carbapenem antibiotic." Drug Intell Clin Pharm 19 (1985): 894-8
  10. O'Meara TF, Simmons RA "Carbenicillin and pseudomembranous enterocolitis." Ann Intern Med 92 (1980): 440-1
  11. Meadowcroft AM, Diaz PR, Latham GS "Clostridium difficile toxin-induced colitis after use of clindmycin phosphate vaginal cream." Ann Pharmacother 32 (1998): 309-11
  12. Cone JB, Wetzel W "Toxic megacolon secondary to pseudomembranous colitis." Dis Colon Rectum 25 (1982): 478-82
  13. Harmon T, Burkhart G, Applebaum H "Perforated pseudomembranous colitis in the breast-fed infant." J Pediatr Surg 27 (1992): 744-6
  14. Milstone EB, McDonald AJ, Scholhamer CF Jr "Pseudomembranous colitis after topical application of clindamycin." Arch Dermatol 117 (1981): 154-5
  15. Burt RA "A review of the drug events reported by 12,917 patients treated with cephalexin." Postgrad Med J 59 (1983): 47-50,51-3
  16. Cannon SR, Dyson PH, Sanderson PJ "Pseudomembranous colitis associated with antibiotic prophylaxis in orthopaedic surgery." J Bone Joint Surg Br 70-B (1988): 600-2
  17. Ehrenpreis ED, Lievens MW, Craig RM "Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea after norfloxacin." J Clin Gastroenterol 12 (1990): 188-9
  18. Miller DL, Sedlack JD, Holt RW "Perforation complicating rifampin-associated pseudomembranous enteritis." Arch Surg 124 (1989): 1082
  19. Miller SN, Ringler RP "Vancomycin-induced pseudomembranous colitis." J Clin Gastroenterol 9 (1987): 114-5
  20. Wang C, Calandra GB, Aziz MA, Brown KR "Efficacy and safety of imipenem/cilastatin: a review of worldwide clinical experience." Rev Infect Dis 7 (1985): s528-36
  21. Calandra GB, Brown KR, Grad LC, et al "Review of adverse experiences and tolerability in the first 2,516 patients treated with imipenem/cilastatin." Am J Med 78 (1985): 73-8
  22. Pokorney BH, Nichols TW, Jr "Pseudomembranous colitis. A complication of sulfasalazine therapy in a patient with Crohn's colitis." Am J Gastroenterol 76 (1981): 374-6
  23. Sankarankutty M, McGeorge D, Galasko CS "Pseudomembranous colitis following cephradine prophylaxis." Postgrad Med J 58 (1982): 726-8
  24. Bingley PJ, Harding GM "Clostridium difficile colitis following treatment with metronidazole and vancomycin." Postgrad Med J 63 (1987): 993-4
  25. Osler T, Lott D, Bordley J, et al "Cefazolin-induced pseudomembranous colitis resulting in perforation of the sigmoid colon." Dis Colon Rectum 29 (1986): 140-3
  26. Parry MF, Rha CK "Pseudomembranous colitis caused by topical clindamycin phosphate." Arch Dermatol 122 (1986): 583-4
  27. Hutcheon DF, Milligan FD, Yardley JH, Hendrix TR "Cephalosporin-associated pseudomembranous colitis." Am J Dig Dis 23 (1978): 321-6
  28. Clissold SP, Todd PA, Campoli-Richards DM "Imipenem/cilastatin: a review of its antibacterial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic efficacy." Drugs 33 (1987): 185-241
  29. Gordin F, Gibert C, Schmidt ME "Clostridium difficile colitis associated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole given as prophylaxis for pneumocystis carinii pneumonia." Am J Med 96 (1994): 94-5
  30. Bernstein L "Adverse reaction to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, with particular reference to long-term therapy." Can Med Assoc J 112 (1975): s96-8
  31. Ring FA, Hershfield NB, Machin GA, Scott RB "Sulfasalazine-induced colitis complicating idiopathic ulcerative colitis." Can Med Assoc J 131 (1984): 43-5
  32. Friedman RJ, Mayer IE, Galambos JT, Hersh T "Oxacillin-induced pseudomembranous colitis." Am J Gastroenterol 73 (1980): 445-7
  33. Van Ness MM, Cattau EL Jr "Fulminant colitis complicating antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis: case report and review of the clinical manifestations and treatment." Am J Gastroenterol 82 (1987): 374-7
  34. Sugarman B "Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, pseudomembranous colitis, and spinal cord injury." South Med J 78 (1985): 711-3
  35. "Multum Information Services, Inc. Expert Review Panel"
  36. Midtvedt T, Carlstedt-Duke B, Hoverstad T, et al "Influence of peroral antibiotics upon the biotransformatory activity of the intestinal microflora in healthy subjects." Eur J Clin Invest 16 (1986): 11-7
  37. Altamirano A, Bondani A "Adverse reactions to furazolidone and other drugs. A comparative review." Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl 169 (1989): 70-80
  38. Leigh DA, Simmons K, Williams S "Gastrointestinal side effects following clindamycin and lincomycin treatment: a follow up study." J Antimicrob Chemother 6 (1980): 639-45
  39. Golledge CL, Riley TV "Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea after doxycycline malaria prophylaxis." Lancet 345 (1995): 1377-8
  40. Hecht JR, Olinger EJ "Clostridium difficile colitis secondary to intravenous vancomycin." Dig Dis Sci 34 (1989): 148-9
  41. Boriello SP, Jones RH, Phillips I "Rifampicin-associated pseudomembranous colitis." Br Med J 281 (1980): 1180-1
  42. Brause BD, Romankiewicz JA, Gotz V, Franklin JE Jr, Roberts RB "Comparative study of diarrhea associated with clindamycin and ampicillin therapy." Am J Gastroenterol 73 (1980): 244-8
  43. Klinger D, Radford P, Collin J "Pneumoperitoneum without faecal peritonitis in a patient with pseudomembranous colitis." Br Med J 288 (1984): 1271-2
  44. Hinton NA "The effect of oral tetracycline HCl and doxycycline on the intestinal flora." Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 12 (1970): 341-52
  45. Edlund C, Lidbeck A, Kager L, Nord CE "Effect of enoxacin on colonic microflora of healthy volunteers." Eur J Clin Microbiol 6 (1987): 298-300
  46. Edlund C, Brismar B, Nord CE "Effect of lomefloxacin on the normal oral and intestinal microflora." Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1 (1990): 35-9
  47. Saginur R, Hawley CR, Bartlett JG "Colitis associated with metronidazole therapy." J Infect Dis 141 (1980): 772-4
View all 47 references
Moderate

Sulfonamides (Includes Azo Gantrisin) ↔ Crystalluria

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Dehydration, Diarrhea, Vomiting

Crystalluria can occur during sulfonamide therapy due to precipitation of the sulfonamide and/or its N4-acetyl metabolite in the urinary tract. Renal toxicity such as uro- and nephrolithiasis, nephritis, toxic nephrosis, hematuria, proteinuria, and elevated BUN and creatinine has been reported. Hydration (8 oz. glass of water with each dose and throughout the day) and adequate urinary output (> 1.5 L/day) should be maintained during sulfonamide administration. Patients who are dehydrated (e.g., due to severe diarrhea or vomiting) may be at increased risk for the development of crystalluria and lithiasis and should be encouraged to consume additional amounts of liquid or given intravenous fluid. Renal function tests and urinalysis should be performed weekly during prolonged therapy (> 2 weeks). Rarely, alkalinization of the urine is necessary.

References

  1. "Product Information. Azulfidine (sulfasalazine)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  2. Sasson JP, Dratch PL, Shortsleeve MJ "Renal US findings in sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria." Radiology 185 (1992): 739-40
  3. Molina J, Belenfant X, Doco-Lecompte T, et al "Sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria in AIDS patients with toxoplasma encephalitis." AIDS 5 (1991): 587-9
  4. Simon D, Brosius F, Rothstein D "Sulfadiazine crystalluria revisited." Arch Intern Med 150 (1990): 2379-84
  5. Finland M, Strauss E, Peterson O "Sulfadiazine." JAMA 251 (1984): 1467-74
  6. Hein R, Brunkhorst R, Thon WF, Schedel I, Schmidt RE "Symptomatic sulfadiazine crystalluria in AIDS patients: a report of two cases." Clin Nephrol 39 (1993): 254-6
  7. Robson M, Levi J, Dolberg L, Rosenfeld J "Acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis following sulfadiazine therapy." Isr J Med Sci 6 (1970): 561-6
  8. "Product Information. Gantrisin (sulfisoxazole)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  9. "Product Information. Gantranol (sulfamethoxazole)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  10. "Product Information. Sulfadiazine (sulfadiazine)." Eon Labs Manufacturing Inc, Laurelton, NY.
  11. Erturk E, Casemento JB, Guertin KR, Kende AS "Bilateral acetylsulfapyridine nephrolithiasis associated with chronic sulfasalazine therapy." J Urol 151 (1994): 1605-6
  12. Sahai J, Heimberger R, Collins K, Kaplowitz L, Polk R "Sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a reminder." Am J Med 84 (1988): 791-2
View all 12 references
Moderate

Sulfonamides (Includes Azo Gantrisin) ↔ Hemodialysis

Moderate Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: hemodialysis

The sulfonamides, sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfisoxazole, are partially removed by hemodialysis and should be administered after dialysis.

References

  1. Patel RB, Welling PG "Clinical pharmacokinetics of co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole)." Clin Pharmacokinet 5 (1980): 405-23
  2. "Product Information. Sulfadiazine (sulfadiazine)." Eon Labs Manufacturing Inc, Laurelton, NY.
  3. "Product Information. Gantranol (sulfamethoxazole)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  4. "Product Information. Gantrisin (sulfisoxazole)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  5. Nissenson AR, Wilson C, Holazo A "Pharmacokinetics of intravenous trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole during hemodialysis." Am J Nephrol 7 (1987): 270-4
  6. Adam W, Dawborn J "Urinary excretion and plasma levels of sulphonamides in patients with renal impairment." Australas Ann Med 19 (1970): 250-4
View all 6 references
Moderate

Sulfonamides (Includes Azo Gantrisin) ↔ Urinary Obstruction

Moderate Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Urinary Retention

Sulfonamides are excreted and concentrated in the urine. Therapy with sulfonamides should be administered cautiously in patients with urinary obstruction or retention, since excessive drug accumulation may occur. These patients may also be at increased risk for sulfonamide crystalluria, which may be associated with renal toxicity such as uro- and nephrolithiasis, nephritis, toxic nephrosis, hematuria, proteinuria, and elevated BUN and creatinine. A urinary output of at least 1.5 L/day should be maintained during sulfonamide administration. Renal function tests and urinalysis should be performed weekly, especially during prolonged therapy (> 2 weeks).

References

  1. Marques LP, Silva MT, Madeira EP, Santos OR "Obstructive renal failure due to therapy with sulfadiazine in an AIDS patient." Nephron 62 (1992): 361
  2. Erturk E, Casemento JB, Guertin KR, Kende AS "Bilateral acetylsulfapyridine nephrolithiasis associated with chronic sulfasalazine therapy." J Urol 151 (1994): 1605-6
  3. Carbone L, Bendixen B, Appel G "Sulfadiazine-associated obstructive nephropathy occurring in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome." Am J Kidney Dis 12 (1988): 72-5
  4. Sahai J, Heimberger R, Collins K, Kaplowitz L, Polk R "Sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a reminder." Am J Med 84 (1988): 791-2
  5. Molina J, Belenfant X, Doco-Lecompte T, et al "Sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria in AIDS patients with toxoplasma encephalitis." AIDS 5 (1991): 587-9
  6. "Product Information. Sulfadiazine (sulfadiazine)." Eon Labs Manufacturing Inc, Laurelton, NY.
  7. Sasson JP, Dratch PL, Shortsleeve MJ "Renal US findings in sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria." Radiology 185 (1992): 739-40
  8. "Product Information. Gantranol (sulfamethoxazole)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  9. "Product Information. Gantrisin (sulfisoxazole)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  10. Marques L, Silva M, Madeira E, Santos O "Obstructive renal failure due to therapy with sulfadiazine in an AIDS patient." Nephron 62 (1992): 361
  11. Simon D, Brosius F, Rothstein D "Sulfadiazine crystalluria revisited." Arch Intern Med 150 (1990): 2379-84
  12. "Product Information. Azulfidine (sulfasalazine)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  13. Hein R, Brunkhorst R, Thon WF, Schedel I, Schmidt RE "Symptomatic sulfadiazine crystalluria in AIDS patients: a report of two cases." Clin Nephrol 39 (1993): 254-6
View all 13 references

Azo Gantrisin (phenazopyridine / sulfisoxazole) drug Interactions

There are 104 drug interactions with Azo Gantrisin (phenazopyridine / sulfisoxazole)

Drug Interaction Classification

The classifications below are a general guideline only. It is difficult to determine the relevance of a particular drug interaction to any individual given the large number of variables.
Major Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.
Moderate Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.
Minor Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.
Unknown No information available.

Do not stop taking any medications without consulting your healthcare provider.

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