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Emtricitabine/tenofovir Disease Interactions

There are 7 disease interactions with emtricitabine / tenofovir.


Emtricitabine/tenofovir (applies to emtricitabine/tenofovir) hepatitis B

Major Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility. Applicable conditions: Infectious Hepatitis, Infectious Hepatitis

Severe acute exacerbations of hepatitis B have been reported in patients who are coinfected with HIV-1 and HBV and have discontinued products containing emtricitabine (FTC) and/or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and may occur with discontinuation of other products containing these agents. It is recommended that patients with HIV-1 be tested for the presence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection before or when initiating antiretroviral therapy. Closely monitor hepatic function with both clinical and laboratory follow-up for at least several months in patients who are coinfected with HIV-1 and HBV and discontinue FTC and or TDF, or other products containing these drugs. If appropriate, anti-hepatitis B therapy may be warranted according to clinical practices, especially in patients with advanced liver disease or cirrhosis, since post-treatment exacerbation of hepatitis may lead to hepatic decompensation and liver failure.


  1. "Product Information. Viread (tenofovir)." Gilead Sciences (2001):
  2. "Product Information. Emtriva (emtricitabine)." Gilead Sciences (2003):
  3. "Product Information. Biktarvy (bictegravir/emtricitabine/tenofovir)." Gilead Sciences (2018):

NRTIs (applies to emtricitabine/tenofovir) hepatotoxicity

Major Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility. Applicable conditions: Alcoholism, Liver Disease

Hepatotoxicity including lactic acidosis, severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, fulminant hepatitis, and hepatic failure has been associated with the use of some nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) alone or in combination with other antiretroviral agents. Therapy with NRTIs should be administered cautiously in patients with preexisting liver disease, a history of alcohol abuse, or hepatitis. Therapy should be suspended if clinical or laboratory findings suggestive of lactic acidosis or pronounced hepatotoxicity occur. The use of abacavir is contraindicated in patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment as its safety and efficacy has not been established on these patients.


  1. Yarchoan R, Mitsuya H, Pluda JM, et al. "The National Cancer Institute phase I study of 2',3'-dideoxyinosine administration in adults with AIDS-related complex: analysis of activity and toxicity profiles." Rev Infect Dis 12 (1990): s522-33
  2. Dolin R, Lambert JS, Morse GD, et al. "2',3'-dideoxyinosine in patients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex." Rev Infect Dis 12 (1990): s540-51
  3. Lai KK, Gang DL, Zawacki JK, Cooley TP "Fulminant hepatic failure associated with 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (ddI)." Ann Intern Med 115 (1991): 283-4
  4. Dubin G, Braffman MN "Zidovudine-induced hepatotoxicity." Ann Intern Med 110 (1989): 85-6
  5. Shriner K, Goetz MB "Severe hepatoxicity in a patient receiving both acetaminophen and zidovudine." Am J Med 93 (1992): 94-6
  6. Gradon JD, Chapnick EK, Sepkowitz DV "Zidovudine-induced hepatitis." J Intern Med 231 (1992): 317-8
  7. Chen SC, Barker SM, Mitchell DH, et al. "Concurrent zidovudine-induced myopathy and hepatoxicity in patients treated for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection." Pathology 24 (1992): 109-11
  8. "Product Information. Videx (didanosine)." Bristol-Myers Squibb (2002):
  9. "Product Information. HIVID (zalcitabine)." Roche Laboratories (2001):
  10. "Product Information. Retrovir (zidovudine)." Glaxo Wellcome (2001):
  11. Pike IM, Nicaise C "The didanosine Expanded Access Program: safety analysis." Clin Infect Dis 16 (1993): S63-8
  12. Shintaku M, Nasu K, Shimizu T "Fulminant hepatic failure in an AIDS patient: possible zidovudine- induced hepatotoxicity." Am J Gastroenterol 88 (1993): 464-6
  13. Montaner JSG, Rachlis A, Beaulieu R, Gill J, Schlech W, Phillips P, Auclair C, Boulerice F, Schindzielorz A, Smaldone L, Wainber "Safety profile of didanosine among patients with advanced HIV disease who are intolerant to or deteriorate despite zidovudine therapy: results of the canadian open ddi treatment program." J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 7 (1994): 924-30
  14. "Product Information. Epivir (lamivudine)." Glaxo Wellcome (2001):
  15. "Product Information. Ziagen (abacavir)." Glaxo Wellcome (2001):
  16. Miller KD, Cameron M, Wood LV, Dalakas MC, Kovacs JA "Lactic acidosis and hepatic steatosis associated with use of stavudine: report of four cases." Ann Intern Med 133 (2000): 192-6
  17. Lhouri S, Cushing H "Lactic acidosis secondary to nucleoside analog antiretroviral therapy." Infect Med 17 (2000): 547-54
  18. Pai VB, Koranyi K, Nahata MC "Acute hepatitis and bleeding possibly induced by zidovudine and ritonavir in an infant with HIV infection." Pharmacotherapy 20 (2000): 1135-40
  19. Lonergan JT, Behling C, Pfander H, Hassanein TI, Mathews WC "Hyperlactatemia and hepatic abnormalities in 10 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients receiving nucleoside analogue combination regimens." Clin Infect Dis 31 (2000): 162-6
  20. Kronenberg A, Riehle HM, Gunthard HF "Liver failure after long-term nucleoside antiretroviral therapy." Lancet 358 (2001): 759-601
  21. Boubaker K, Flepp M, Sudre P, et al. "Hyperlactatemia and Antiretroviral Therapy: The Swiss HIV Cohort Study." Clin Infect Dis 33 (2001): 1931-7
  22. Coghlan ME, Sommadossi JP, Jhala NC, Many WJ, Saag MS, Johnson VA "Symptomatic lactic acidosis in hospitalized antiretroviral-treated patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection: a report of 12 cases." Clin Infect Dis 33 (2001): 1914-21
  23. "Product Information. Viread (tenofovir)." Gilead Sciences (2001):
  24. "Product Information. Baraclude (entecavir)." Bristol-Myers Squibb (2005):
View all 24 references

Tenofovir (applies to emtricitabine/tenofovir) renal dysfunction

Major Potential Hazard, High plausibility.

Tenofovir is primarily eliminated by the kidney via glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Renal impairment, including acute renal failure and Fanconi syndrome, has been reported with tenofovir use. Close monitoring of renal function and lengthening the dosing interval are recommended for patients with creatinine clearance less than 50 mL/min. Creatinine clearance should be calculated in all patients before starting tenofovir treatment and during treatment when clinically appropriate. Routine monitoring of serum creatinine and phosphorus is recommended for patients at risk of or with a history of renal dysfunction. Safety and effectiveness have not been evaluated in patients with renal insufficiency using dose adjustments; therefore, the benefit of tenofovir treatment should be weighed against the risk of renal toxicity. Tenofovir should be avoided in patients who are currently using or have recently used nephrotoxic drugs.


  1. "Product Information. Viread (tenofovir)." Gilead Sciences (2001):

Emtricitabine (applies to emtricitabine/tenofovir) hemodialysis

Moderate Potential Hazard, High plausibility.

Emtricitabine is removed by hemodialysis. Following an emtricitabine dose administered 1.5 hours before the hemodialysis session, approximately 30% of the dose was removed over three hours of hemodialysis (blood flow rate of 400 mL/min and a dialysate flow rate of 600 mL/min). Emtricitabine should be administered after hemodialysis.


  1. "Product Information. Emtriva (emtricitabine)." Gilead Sciences (2003):

Emtricitabine (applies to emtricitabine/tenofovir) renal dysfunction

Moderate Potential Hazard, High plausibility.

Emtricitabine is primarily eliminated by the kidney. Compared to patients with normal renal function (CrCl above 80 mL/min), peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and systemic exposure (AUC) of emtricitabine increased by 45% and 113%, respectively, in patients with moderate renal dysfunction (CrCl 30 to 49 mL/min), and 27% and 186%, respectively, in patients with severe renal dysfunction (CrCl below 30 mL/min). Systemic exposure was increased even further in patients with end-stage renal disease managed on dialysis. These patients had an approximately 3.5-fold increase in emtricitabine AUC compared to patients with normal renal function. Renal clearance of emtricitabine decreased by 68% and 86%, respectively, in patients with moderate and severe renal dysfunction. Dosage adjustment of emtricitabine is recommended for patients with CrCl below 50 mL/min, including patients on dialysis, in accordance with the manufacturer's product labeling. Clinical response to treatment and renal function should be closely monitored.


  1. "Product Information. Emtriva (emtricitabine)." Gilead Sciences (2003):

Tenofovir (applies to emtricitabine/tenofovir) bone toxicity

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility. Applicable conditions: Osteoporosis, Vitamin D Deficiency

Osteomalacia and reduced bone mineral density have been reported in animal toxicology studies involving tenofovir exposures 6- to 12-fold those observed in humans. The mechanism of bone toxicity has not been established, and it is not known if long-term use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate will cause bone abnormalities in humans.


  1. "Product Information. Viread (tenofovir)." Gilead Sciences (2001):

Tenofovir (applies to emtricitabine/tenofovir) liver disease

Minor Potential Hazard, Low plausibility.

There are no data concerning the use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in patients with hepatic impairment. Tenofovir and tenofovir disoproxil are not metabolized by liver enzymes. However, since tenofovir is not entirely eliminated by the kidney (70% to 80%), tenofovir pharmacokinetics may be altered in patients with impaired hepatic function.


  1. "Product Information. Viread (tenofovir)." Gilead Sciences (2001):

Emtricitabine/tenofovir drug interactions

There are 215 drug interactions with emtricitabine / tenofovir.

Emtricitabine/tenofovir alcohol/food interactions

There is 1 alcohol/food interaction with emtricitabine / tenofovir.

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Drug Interaction Classification

These classifications are only a guideline. The relevance of a particular drug interaction to a specific individual is difficult to determine. Always consult your healthcare provider before starting or stopping any medication.
Major Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.
Moderate Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.
Minor Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.
Unknown No interaction information available.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.