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Cosopt (dorzolamide / timolol ophthalmic) Disease Interactions

There are 16 disease interactions with Cosopt (dorzolamide / timolol ophthalmic):

Major

Ophthalmic Beta-Blockers (Includes Cosopt) ↔ Asthma/Copd

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Ophthalmic beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agents (aka beta-blockers) in general should not be used in patients with a current or past history of bronchial asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Topically applied beta-blockers are systemically absorbed, with the potential for producing clinically significant systemic effects even at low or undetectable plasma levels. In the respiratory tract, beta blockade may adversely affect pulmonary function by counteracting the bronchodilation produced by catecholamine stimulation of beta-2 receptors. Although agents with beta-1 selectivity (e.g., betaxolol) are considered safer in patients with bronchospastic diseases, cardioselectivity is not absolute and may be lost with larger doses or higher plasma levels.

References

  1. Adam WR, Meagher EJ, Barter CE "Labetalol, beta blockers, and acute deterioration of chronic airway obstruction." Clin Exp Hypertens A A4 (1982): 1419-28
  2. Raine JM, Palazzo MG, Kerr JH, Sleight P "Near-fatal bronchospasm after oral nadolol in a young asthmatic and response to ventilation with halothane." Br Med J 282 (1981): 548-9
  3. Prince DS, Carliner NH "Respiratory arrest following first dose of timolol ophthalmic solution." Chest 84 (1983): 640-1
  4. Horvath JS, Woolcock AJ, Tiller DJ, Donnelly P, Armstrong J, Caterson R "A comparison of metoprolol and propranolol on blood pressure and respiratory function in patients with hypertension." Aust N Z J Med 8 (1978): 1-6
  5. Falliers CJ, Vincent ME, Medakovic M "Effect of single doses of labetalol, metoprolol, and placebo on ventilatory function in patients with bronchial asthma: interaction with isoproterenol." J Asthma 23 (1986): 251-60
  6. "Product Information. Timoptic (timolol ophthalmic)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  7. Benjamin KW "Toxicity of ocular medications." Int Ophthalmol Clin 19 (1979): 199-255
  8. Odeh M, Oliven A, Bassan H "Timolol eyedrop-induced fatal bronchospasm in an asthmatic patient." J Fam Pract 32 (1991): 97-8
  9. Stephen SA "Unwanted effects of propranolol." Am J Cardiol 18 (1966): 463-72
  10. Schoenberger JA, Croog SH, Sudilovsky A, et al "Self-reported side effects from antihypertensive drugs: a clinical trial." Am J Hypertens 3 (1990): 123-32
  11. Charan NB, Lakshminarayan S "Pulmonary effects of topical timolol." Arch Intern Med 140 (1980): 843-4
  12. "Product Information. Betagan Liquifilm (levobunolol)." Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA.
  13. Mashford ML, Coventry D, Hecker R, et al. "Adverse Drug Reactions Advisory Committee: ADRAC report for 1980." Med J Aust 1 (1982): 416-9
  14. Uusitalo RJ, Palkama A "Efficacy and safety of timolol pilocarpine combination drops in glaucoma patients." Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 72 (1994): 496-504
  15. Le Jeunne CL, Hugues FC, Dufier JL, Munera Y, Bringer L "Bronchial and cardiovascular effects of ocular topical B-antagonists in asthmatic subjects: comparison of timolol, carteolol, and metipranolol." J Clin Pharmacol 29 (1989): 97-101
  16. Chodosh S, Tuck J, Blasucci DJ "The effects of dilevalol, metoprolol, and placebo on ventilatory function in asthmatics." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 11 (1988): s18-24
  17. van Zyl AI, Jennings AA, Bateman ED, Opie LH "Comparison of respiratory effects of two cardioselective beta-blockers, celiprolol and atenolol, in asthmatics with mild to moderate hypertension." Chest 95 (1989): 209-13
  18. Benson MK, Berrill WT, Cruickshank JM, Sterling GS "A comparison of four B-adrenoceptor antagonists in patients with asthma." Br J Clin Pharmacol 5 (1978): 415-9
  19. Morris R, Bulteau P "Respiratory arrest after beta-blocker in an asthmatic patient." Med J Aust 2 (1980): 576
  20. "Product Information. Betoptic (betaxolol ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX.
  21. "Product Information. Betaxon (levobetaxolol ophthalmic)" Alza, Palo Alto, CA.
  22. "Product Information. OptiPranolol (metipranolol)." Bausch and Lomb, Tampa, FL.
  23. Botet C, Grau J, Benito P, Coll J, Vivancos J "Timolol ophthalmic solution and respiratory arrest." Ann Intern Med 105 (1986): 306-7
  24. Laursen SO, Bjerrum P "Timolol eyedrop-induced severe bronchospasm." Acta Med Scand 211 (1982): 505-6
  25. "Product Information. Ocupress (carteolol ophthalmic)" Ciba Vision Ophthalmics, Duluth, GA.
  26. Dunn TL, Gerber MJ, Shen AS, Fernandez E, Iseman MD, Cherniak RM "The effect of topical ophthalmic instillation of timolol and betaxolol on lung function in asthmatic subjects." Am Rev Respir Dis 133 (1986): 264-8
  27. Durant PA, Joucken K "Bronchospasm and hypotension during cardiopulmonary bypass after preoperative cimetidine and labetalol therapy." Br J Anaesth 56 (1984): 917-20
View all 27 references
Major

Ophthalmic Beta-Blockers (Includes Cosopt) ↔ Bradycardia/Av Block

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Sinus Node Dysfunction, Heart Block

The use of ophthalmic beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agents (aka beta-blockers) is considered by manufacturers to be contraindicated in patients with sinus bradyarrhythmia or heart block greater than the first degree (unless a functioning pacemaker is present). Topically applied beta-blockers are systemically absorbed, with the potential for producing clinically significant systemic effects even at low or undetectable plasma levels. In cardiac tissues, beta blockade causes a reduction in inotropic as well as chronotropic activity, which may further depress cardiac function in such patients.

References

  1. "Product Information. Betagan Liquifilm (levobunolol)." Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA.
  2. "Product Information. Timoptic (timolol ophthalmic)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  3. Crean PA, Williams DO "Effect of intravenous and oral acebutolol in patients with bundle branch block." Int J Cardiol 10 (1986): 119-26
  4. "Product Information. OptiPranolol (metipranolol)." Bausch and Lomb, Tampa, FL.
  5. Mashford ML, Coventry D, Hecker R, et al. "Adverse Drug Reactions Advisory Committee: ADRAC report for 1980." Med J Aust 1 (1982): 416-9
  6. Uusitalo RJ, Palkama A "Efficacy and safety of timolol pilocarpine combination drops in glaucoma patients." Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 72 (1994): 496-504
  7. Edeki TI, He H, Wood AJ "Pharmacogenetic explanation for excessive B-blockade following timolol eye drops." JAMA 274 (1995): 1611-3
  8. Treseder AS, Thomas TP "Sinus arrest due to timolol eye drops." Br J Clin Pract 40 (1986): 256-8
  9. Shiuey Y, Eisenberg MJ "Cardiovascular effects of commonly used ophthalmic medications." Clin Cardiol 19 (1996): 5-8
  10. "Product Information. Betoptic (betaxolol ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX.
  11. "Product Information. Betaxon (levobetaxolol ophthalmic)" Alza, Palo Alto, CA.
  12. "Product Information. Ocupress (carteolol ophthalmic)" Ciba Vision Ophthalmics, Duluth, GA.
  13. Benjamin KW "Toxicity of ocular medications." Int Ophthalmol Clin 19 (1979): 199-255
View all 13 references
Major

Ophthalmic Beta-Blockers (Includes Cosopt) ↔ Cardiogenic Shock

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Cardiogenic Shock

The use of ophthalmic beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agents (aka beta-blockers) is considered by manufacturers to be contraindicated in patients with cardiogenic shock. Topically applied beta-blockers are systemically absorbed, with the potential for producing clinically significant systemic effects even at low or undetectable plasma levels. In cardiac tissues, beta blockade causes a reduction in inotropic as well as chronotropic activity, which may further depress cardiac output and blood pressure in such patients.

References

  1. Benjamin KW "Toxicity of ocular medications." Int Ophthalmol Clin 19 (1979): 199-255
  2. "Product Information. Betoptic (betaxolol ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX.
  3. "Product Information. Timoptic (timolol ophthalmic)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  4. Tirlapur VG, Evans PJ, Jones MK "Shock syndrome after acebutolol." Br J Clin Pract 40 (1986): 33-4
  5. "Product Information. OptiPranolol (metipranolol)." Bausch and Lomb, Tampa, FL.
  6. Uusitalo RJ, Palkama A "Efficacy and safety of timolol pilocarpine combination drops in glaucoma patients." Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 72 (1994): 496-504
  7. Kholeif M, Isles C "Profound hypotension after atenolol in severe hypertension." Br Med J 298 (1989): 161-2
  8. "Product Information. Ocupress (carteolol ophthalmic)" Ciba Vision Ophthalmics, Duluth, GA.
  9. Edeki TI, He H, Wood AJ "Pharmacogenetic explanation for excessive B-blockade following timolol eye drops." JAMA 274 (1995): 1611-3
  10. "Product Information. Betaxon (levobetaxolol ophthalmic)" Alza, Palo Alto, CA.
  11. "Product Information. Betagan Liquifilm (levobunolol)." Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA.
  12. Shiuey Y, Eisenberg MJ "Cardiovascular effects of commonly used ophthalmic medications." Clin Cardiol 19 (1996): 5-8
View all 12 references
Major

Ophthalmic Beta-Blockers (Includes Cosopt) ↔ Chf

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Congestive Heart Failure

The use of ophthalmic beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agents (aka beta-blockers) is considered by manufacturers to be contraindicated in patients with overt congestive heart failure (CHF). Topically applied beta-blockers are systemically absorbed, with the potential for producing clinically significant systemic effects even at low or undetectable plasma levels. Since sympathetic stimulation may be important in maintaining the hemodynamic function in patients with CHF, beta blockade can worsen the heart failure. However, therapy with ophthalmic beta-blockers can be administered cautiously in some CHF patients provided they are well compensated and receiving digitalis, diuretics, an ACE inhibitor, and/or nitrates. Beta-blockers should be discontinued if cardiac failure develops or worsens during therapy.

References

  1. Mashford ML, Coventry D, Hecker R, et al. "Adverse Drug Reactions Advisory Committee: ADRAC report for 1980." Med J Aust 1 (1982): 416-9
  2. Uusitalo RJ, Palkama A "Efficacy and safety of timolol pilocarpine combination drops in glaucoma patients." Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 72 (1994): 496-504
  3. "Product Information. Betagan Liquifilm (levobunolol)." Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA.
  4. "Product Information. Timoptic (timolol ophthalmic)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  5. "Product Information. Ocupress (carteolol ophthalmic)" Ciba Vision Ophthalmics, Duluth, GA.
  6. Shiuey Y, Eisenberg MJ "Cardiovascular effects of commonly used ophthalmic medications." Clin Cardiol 19 (1996): 5-8
  7. Edeki TI, He H, Wood AJ "Pharmacogenetic explanation for excessive B-blockade following timolol eye drops." JAMA 274 (1995): 1611-3
  8. Benjamin KW "Toxicity of ocular medications." Int Ophthalmol Clin 19 (1979): 199-255
  9. Altus P "Timolol-induced congestive heart failure." South Med J 74 (1981): 88
  10. "Product Information. Betaxon (levobetaxolol ophthalmic)" Alza, Palo Alto, CA.
  11. "Product Information. Betoptic (betaxolol ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX.
  12. "Product Information. OptiPranolol (metipranolol)." Bausch and Lomb, Tampa, FL.
View all 12 references
Major

Ophthalmic Beta-Blockers (Includes Cosopt) ↔ Diabetes

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Diabetes Mellitus

Beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agents (aka beta-blockers) may mask symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremors, tachycardia and blood pressure changes. In addition, the nonselective beta-blockers (e.g., timolol, carteolol) may inhibit catecholamine-mediated glycogenolysis, thereby potentiating insulin-induced hypoglycemia and delaying the recovery of normal blood glucose levels. Since topically applied beta-blockers are systemically absorbed and may produce clinically significant systemic effects even at low or undetectable plasma levels, therapy with ophthalmic beta-blockers should be administered cautiously in patients with diabetes or predisposed to spontaneous hypoglycemia.

References

  1. "Product Information. Betoptic (betaxolol ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX.
  2. "Product Information. Betaxon (levobetaxolol ophthalmic)" Alza, Palo Alto, CA.
  3. Benjamin KW "Toxicity of ocular medications." Int Ophthalmol Clin 19 (1979): 199-255
  4. Velde TM, Kaiser FE "Ophthalmic timolol treatment causing altered hypoglycemic response in a diabetic patient." Arch Intern Med 143 (1983): 1627
  5. "Product Information. Betagan Liquifilm (levobunolol)." Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA.
  6. Darga LL, Hakim MJ, Lucas CP, Franklin BA "Comparison of the effects of guanadrel sulfate and propranolol on blood pressure, functional capacity, serum lipoproteins and glucose in systemic hypertension." Am J Cardiol 67 (1991): 590-6
  7. "Product Information. OptiPranolol (metipranolol)." Bausch and Lomb, Tampa, FL.
  8. Giugliano D, Acampora R, Marfella R, DeRosa N, Ziccardi P, Ragone R, DeAngelis L, DOnofrio F "Metabolic and cardiovascular effects of carvedilol and atenolol in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and hypertension - A randomized, controlled trial." Ann Intern Med 126 (1997): 955-9
  9. Uusitupa M, Aro A, Pietikainen M "Severe hypoglycaemia caused by physical strain and pindolol therapy." Ann Clin Res 12 (1980): 25-7
  10. Grimaldi A, Bennett P, Delas B, et al "Beta-blockers and hypoglycaemia: assessment of cardioselective and intrinsic sympathomimetic properties in relation to severity of hypoglycaemia." Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 36 (1984): 361-73
  11. "Product Information. Timoptic (timolol ophthalmic)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  12. "Product Information. Ocupress (carteolol ophthalmic)" Ciba Vision Ophthalmics, Duluth, GA.
View all 12 references
Major

Ophthalmic Beta-Blockers (Includes Cosopt) ↔ Hypersensitivity

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Allergies

Topically applied beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agents (aka beta-blockers) are systemically absorbed, with the potential for producing clinically significant systemic effects even at low or undetectable plasma levels. The use of beta-blockers in patients with a history of allergic reactions or anaphylaxis may be associated with heightened reactivity to culprit allergens. The frequency and/or severity of attacks may be increased during beta-blocker therapy. In addition, these patients may be refractory to the usual doses of epinephrine used to treat acute hypersensitivity reactions and may require a beta-agonist such as isoproterenol.

References

  1. "Product Information. Betaxon (levobetaxolol ophthalmic)" Alza, Palo Alto, CA.
  2. "Product Information. Ocupress (carteolol ophthalmic)" Ciba Vision Ophthalmics, Duluth, GA.
  3. "Product Information. Betoptic (betaxolol ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX.
  4. "Product Information. Timoptic (timolol ophthalmic)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  5. "Product Information. OptiPranolol (metipranolol)." Bausch and Lomb, Tampa, FL.
  6. "Product Information. Betagan Liquifilm (levobunolol)." Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA.
View all 6 references
Major

Ophthalmic Beta-Blockers (Includes Cosopt) ↔ Hyperthyroidism

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Hyperthyroidism

Beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agents (aka beta-blockers) may mask some symptoms of hyperthyroidism such as tachycardia, anxiety, tremor, and heat intolerance. Abrupt withdrawal of beta-blocker therapy in thyrotoxic patients may exacerbate symptoms of hyperthyroidism or precipitate a thyroid storm. Since topically applied beta-blockers are systemically absorbed and may produce clinically significant systemic effects even at low or undetectable plasma levels, therapy with ophthalmic beta-blockers should be administered cautiously in patients with or suspected of having hyperthyroidism. Cessation of beta-blocker therapy, when necessary, should occur gradually over a period of 1 to 2 weeks. Patients should be advised not to discontinue treatment without first consulting with the physician. Close monitoring is recommended during and after therapy withdrawal.

References

  1. "Product Information. Betoptic (betaxolol ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX.
  2. "Product Information. Betaxon (levobetaxolol ophthalmic)" Alza, Palo Alto, CA.
  3. "Product Information. OptiPranolol (metipranolol)." Bausch and Lomb, Tampa, FL.
  4. "Product Information. Timoptic (timolol ophthalmic)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  5. "Product Information. Betagan Liquifilm (levobunolol)." Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA.
  6. "Product Information. Ocupress (carteolol ophthalmic)" Ciba Vision Ophthalmics, Duluth, GA.
View all 6 references
Major

Ophthalmic Beta-Blockers (Includes Cosopt) ↔ Pvd

Severe Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Cerebrovascular Insufficiency, Peripheral Arterial Disease

Due to their negative inotropic and chronotropic effects on the heart, beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agents (aka beta-blockers) reduce cardiac output and may precipitate or aggravate symptoms of arterial insufficiency in patients with peripheral vascular disease. In addition, the nonselective beta-blockers (e.g., timolol, carteolol) may attenuate catecholamine-mediated vasodilation during exercise by blocking beta-2 receptors in peripheral vessels. Since topically applied beta-blockers are systemically absorbed and may produce clinically significant systemic effects even at low or undetectable plasma levels, therapy with ophthalmic beta-blockers should be administered cautiously in patients with peripheral vascular disease. Close monitoring for progression of arterial obstruction is advised.

References

  1. Eliasson K, Danielson M, Hylander B, Lindblad LE "Raynaud's phenomenon caused by beta-receptor blocking drugs." Acta Med Scand 215 (1984): 333-9
  2. "Product Information. Betagan Liquifilm (levobunolol)." Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA.
  3. "Product Information. OptiPranolol (metipranolol)." Bausch and Lomb, Tampa, FL.
  4. Eliasson K, Lins L-E, Sundqvist K "Peripheral vasospasm during beta-receptor blockade: a comparison between metoprolol and pindolol." Acta Med Scand 665 (1982): 109-12
  5. Edeki TI, He H, Wood AJ "Pharmacogenetic explanation for excessive B-blockade following timolol eye drops." JAMA 274 (1995): 1611-3
  6. Shiuey Y, Eisenberg MJ "Cardiovascular effects of commonly used ophthalmic medications." Clin Cardiol 19 (1996): 5-8
  7. "Product Information. Timoptic (timolol ophthalmic)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  8. Breckenridge A, Roberts DH "Antihypertensive treatment in concomitant peripheral vascular disease: current experience and the potential of carvedilol." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 18 Suppl 4 (1991): s78-81
  9. Lepantalo M "Beta blockade and intermittent claudication." Acta Med Scand 700 (1985): 1-48
  10. Holti G "A double-blind study of the peripheral vasoconstrictor effects of the beta-blocking drug penbutolol in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon." Curr Med Res Opin 6 (1979): 267-70
  11. "Product Information. Ocupress (carteolol ophthalmic)" Ciba Vision Ophthalmics, Duluth, GA.
  12. Broeder CE, Thomas EL, Martin NB, Hofman Z, Jesek JK, Scruggs KD, Wambsgans KC, Wilmore JH "Effects of propranolol and pindolol on cardiac output during extended periods of low-intensity physical activity." Am J Cardiol 72 (1993): 1188-95
  13. Uusitalo RJ, Palkama A "Efficacy and safety of timolol pilocarpine combination drops in glaucoma patients." Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 72 (1994): 496-504
  14. Mashford ML, Coventry D, Hecker R, et al. "Adverse Drug Reactions Advisory Committee: ADRAC report for 1980." Med J Aust 1 (1982): 416-9
  15. "Product Information. Betaxon (levobetaxolol ophthalmic)" Alza, Palo Alto, CA.
  16. Coppeto JR "Transient ischemic attacks and amaurosis fugax from timolol." Ann Ophthalmol 17 (1985): 64-5
  17. Benjamin KW "Toxicity of ocular medications." Int Ophthalmol Clin 19 (1979): 199-255
  18. "Product Information. Betoptic (betaxolol ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX.
View all 18 references
Major

Topical Sulfonamides (Includes Cosopt) ↔ Hematologic Toxicity

Severe Potential Hazard, Low plausibility

Applies to: Bone Marrow Depression/Low Blood Counts

Sulfonamides may be systemically absorbed when applied to the skin, eye, or mucosal membranes. The use of sulfonamides has been associated with hematologic toxicity, including methemoglobinemia, sulfhemoglobinemia, leukopenia, granulocytopenia, eosinophilia, hemolytic anemia, aplastic anemia, purpura, clotting disorder, thrombocytopenia, hypofibrinogenemia, and hypoprothrombinemia. Therapy with topical sulfonamides should be administered cautiously in patients with preexisting blood dyscrasias or bone marrow suppression. Complete blood counts should be obtained regularly during prolonged therapy (>2 weeks), and patients should be instructed to immediately report any signs or symptoms suggestive of blood dyscrasia such as fever, sore throat, local infection, bleeding, pallor, dizziness, or jaundice.

References

  1. Damergis J, Stoker J, Abadie J "Methemoglobinemia after sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim therapy." JAMA 249 (1983): 590-1
  2. Davies GE, Palek J "Selective erythroid and magakaryocytic aplasia after sulfasalazine administration." Arch Intern Med 140 (1980): 1122
  3. "Product Information. Gantrisin (sulfisoxazole ophthalmic)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  4. Pena JM, Gonzalez-Garcia JJ, Garcia-Alegria J, Barbado FJ, Vazquez JJ "Thrombocytopenia and sulfasalazine." Ann Intern Med 102 (1985): 277-8
  5. Gales BJ, Gales MA "Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor for sulfasalazine-induced agranulocytosis." Ann Pharmacother 27 (1993): 1052-4
  6. "Product Information. Sultrin (triple sulfa topical)" Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Titusville, NJ.
  7. "Product Information. Sulamyd Ophthalmic Solution (sodium sulfacetamide ophthalmic)." Schering Corporation, Kenilworth, NJ.
  8. Jacobson IM, Kelsey PB, Blyden GT, Demirjian ZN, Isselbacher KJ "Sulfasalazine-induced agranulocytosis." Am J Gastroenterol 80 (1985): 118-21
  9. Mitrane MP, Singh A, Seibold JR "Cholestasis and fatal agranulocytosis complicating sulfasalazine therapy: case report and review of the literature." J Rheumatol 13 (1986): 969-72
  10. "Product Information. Azopt (brinzolamide ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX.
  11. "Product Information. Sulfacet-R (sulfacetamide sodium topical)" Dermik Laboratories, Collegeville, PA.
  12. Kuipers EJ, Vellenga E, de Wolf JT, Hazenberg BP "Sulfasalazine induced agranulocytosis treated with GM-CSF." J Rheumatol 19 (1992): 621-2
  13. Mechanick JI "Coombs' positive hemolytic anemia following sulfasalazine therapy in ulcerative colitis: case reports, review, and discussion of pathogenesis." Mt Sinai J Med 52 (1985): 667-70
  14. "Product Information. Trusopt (dorzolamide ophthalmic)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  15. Wheelan KR, Cooper B, Stone MJ "Multiple haematologic abnormalities associated with sulfasalazine." Ann Intern Med 97 (1982): 726-7
  16. "Product Information. Klaron (sulfacetamide sodium topical)." Dermik Laboratories, Collegeville, PA.
  17. Keisu M, Ekman E "Sulfasalazine associated agranulocytosis in sweden 1972-1989: clinical features, and estimation of its incidence." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 43 (1992): 215-8
  18. "Product Information. AVC Cream (sulfanilamide topical)" Aventis Pharmaceuticals, Swiftwater, PA.
  19. Youssef PP, Bertouch JV "Sulphasalazine induced aplastic anaemia." Aust N Z J Med 22 (1992): 391-2
  20. Barak S, Shaked Y, Bar A, Samra Y "Drug-induced post-surgical hemorrhage resulting from trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole." Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 18 (1989): 206-7
  21. Guillemin F, Aussedat R, Guerci A, Lederlin P, Trechot P, Pourel J "Fatal agranulocytosis in sulfasalazine treated rheumatoid arthritis." J Rheumatol 16 (1989): 1166-7
  22. Betkowski AS, Lubin A "Sulfamethoxazole-related antiplatelet antibody." Blood 82 (1993): 1683
  23. Chan M, Beale D, Moorhead J "Acute megaloblastosis due to cotrimoxazole." Br J Clin Pract 34 (1980): 87-8
View all 23 references
Major

Topical Sulfonamides (Includes Cosopt) ↔ Hypersensitivity Reactions

Severe Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Allergies, Asthma, HIV Infection

Sulfonamides may be systemically absorbed when applied to the skin, eye, or mucosal membranes. The use of sulfonamides is associated with large increases in the risk of Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis and other serious dermatologic reactions, although these phenomena are rare as a whole. Hepatitis, pneumonitis, and interstitial nephritis have also occurred in association with sulfonamide hypersensitivity. Therapy with topical sulfonamides should be administered cautiously in patients with severe allergies, bronchial asthma or AIDS, since these patients may be at increased risk for potentially severe hypersensitivity reactions. Patients should be instructed to promptly report signs and symptoms that may precede the onset of cutaneous manifestations of the Stevens-Johnson syndrome, such as high fever, severe headache, stomatitis, conjunctivitis, rhinitis, urethritis, and balanitis. Sulfonamide therapy should be stopped at once if a rash develops.

References

  1. Williams T, Eidus L, Thomas P "Fibrosing alveolitis, bronchiolitis obliterans, and sulfasalazine therapy." Chest 81 (1982): 766-8
  2. "Product Information. Azopt (brinzolamide ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX.
  3. "Product Information. Sulfacet-R (sulfacetamide sodium topical)" Dermik Laboratories, Collegeville, PA.
  4. Sotolongo RP, Neefe LI, Rudzki C, Ishak KG "Hypersensitivity reaction to sulfasalazine with severe hepatotoxicity." Gastroenterology 75 (1978): 95-9
  5. "Product Information. Trusopt (dorzolamide ophthalmic)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  6. Ribe J, Benkov KJ, Thung SN, Shen SC, LeLeiko NS "Fatal massive hepatic necrosis: a probable hypersensitivity reaction to sulfasalazine." Am J Gastroenterol 81 (1986): 205-8
  7. Yaffe BH, Korelitz BI "Sulfasalazine pneumonitis." Am J Gastroenterol 78 (1983): 493-4
  8. Leroux JL, Ghezail M, Chertok P, Blotman F "Hypersensitivity reactions to sulfasalazine: skin rash, fever, hepatitis and activated lymphocytes." Clin Exp Rheumatol 10 (1992): 427
  9. Horak J, Mertl L, Hrabal P "Severe liver injuries due to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and sulfamethoxydiazine." Hepatogastroenterology 31 (1984): 199-200
  10. "Product Information. Klaron (sulfacetamide sodium topical)." Dermik Laboratories, Collegeville, PA.
  11. Kawada A, Kobayashi T, Noguchi H, Hiruma M, Ishibashi A, Marshall J "Fixed drug eruption induced by sulfasalazine." Contact Dermatitis 34 (1996): 155-6
  12. Whittington R "Toxic epidermal necrolysis and co-trimoxazole." Lancet 2 (1989): 574
  13. Johnson M, Goodwin D, Shands J "Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole anaphylactoid reactions in patients with AIDS: case reports and literature review." Pharmacotherapy 10 (1990): 413-16
  14. Pearl RK, Nelson RL, Prasad ML, Orsay CP, Abcarian H "Serious complications of sulfasalazine." Dis Colon Rectum 29 (1986): 201-2
  15. Robson M, Levi J, Dolberg L, Rosenfeld J "Acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis following sulfadiazine therapy." Isr J Med Sci 6 (1970): 561-6
  16. Faintuch J, Mott CB, Machado MC "Pancreatitis and pancreatic necrosis during sulfasalazine therapy." Int Surg 70 (1985): 271-2
  17. Namias A, Bhalotra R, Donowitz M "Reversible sulfasalazine-induced granulomatous hepatitis." J Clin Gastroenterol 3 (1981): 193-8
  18. Tenant-Flowers M, Boyle M, Carey D, et al "Sulphadiazine desenitization in patients with AIDS and cerebral toxoplasmosis." AIDS 5 (1991): 311-5
  19. Carbone L, Bendixen B, Appel G "Sulfadiazine-associated obstructive nephropathy occurring in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome." Am J Kidney Dis 12 (1988): 72-5
  20. Valcke Y, Pauwels R, Van der Straeten M "Bronchoalveolar lavage in acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by sulfasalazine." Chest 92 (1987): 572-3
  21. "Product Information. Gantrisin (sulfisoxazole ophthalmic)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  22. Pisanty S, Brayer L "Erythema multiforme-like eruption due to sulfadiazine." J Dent Med 20 (1965): 154-7
  23. "Product Information. AVC Cream (sulfanilamide topical)" Aventis Pharmaceuticals, Swiftwater, PA.
  24. Goadsby P, Donaghy A, Lloyd A, Wakefield D "Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and sulfadiazine-associated acute renal failure." Ann Intern Med 107 (1987): 783-4
  25. Roujeau JC, Kelly JP, Naldi L, et al. "Medication use and the risk of Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis." N Engl J Med 333 (1995): 1600-7
  26. Rubin R "Sulfasalazine-induced fulminant hepatic failure and necrotizing pancreatitis." Am J Gastroenterol 89 (1994): 789-91
  27. "Product Information. Sulamyd Ophthalmic Solution (sodium sulfacetamide ophthalmic)." Schering Corporation, Kenilworth, NJ.
  28. Losek JD, Werlin SL "Sulfasalazine hepatotoxicity." Am J Dis Child 135 (1981): 1070-2
  29. Poland GA, Love KR "Marked atypical lymphocytosis, hepatitis, and skin rash in sulfasalazine drug allergy." Am J Med 81 (1986): 707-8
  30. Stevenson D, Christie D, Haas J "Hepatic injury in a child caused by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole." Pediatrics 61 (1978): 864-6
  31. Fich A, Schwartz J, Braverman D, Zifroni A, Rachmilewitz D "Sulfasalazine hepatotoxicity." Am J Gastroenterol 79 (1984): 401-2
  32. "Product Information. Sultrin (triple sulfa topical)" Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Titusville, NJ.
  33. Rudra T, Webb D, Evans A "Acute tubular necrosis following co-trimoxazole therapy." Nephron 53 (1989): 85-6
  34. Kanner RS, Tedesco FJ, Kalser MH "Azulfidine- (sulfasalazine-) induced hepatic injury." Am J Dig Dis 23 (1978): 956-8
  35. Kelly W, Dooley D, Lattuada C, Smith C "A severe, unusual reaction to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus." Clin Infect Dis 14 (1992): 1034-9
  36. Hamadeh MA, Atkinson J, Smith LJ "Sulfasalazine-induced pulmonary disease." Chest 101 (1992): 1033-7
  37. Taffet SL, Das KM "Sulfasalazine. Adverse effects and desensitization." Dig Dis Sci 28 (1983): 833-42
  38. Wang KK, Bowyer BA, Fleming CR, Schroeder KW "Pulmonary infiltrates and eosinophilia associated with sulfasalazine." Mayo Clin Proc 59 (1984): 343-6
  39. Hofer T, Becker EW, Weigand K, Berg PA "Demonstration of sensititzed lymphocytes to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and ofloxacin in a patient with cholestatic hepatitis." J Hepatol 15 (1992): 262-3
  40. Heer M, Altorfer J, Burger H, Walti M "Bullous esophageal lesions due to co-trimoxazole: an immune-mediated process?" Gastroenterology 88 (1985): 1954-7
  41. Haines JD, Jr "Hepatotoxicity after treatment with sulfasalazine." Postgrad Med 79 (1986): 193-4,
  42. Gremse DA, Bancroft J, Moyer MS "Sulfasalazine hypersensitivity with hepatotoxicity, thrombocytopenia, and erythroid hypoplasia." J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 9 (1989): 261-3
  43. Marinos G, Riley J, Painter DM, McCaughan GW "Sulfasalazine-induced fulminant hepatic failure." J Clin Gastroenterol 14 (1992): 132-5
  44. Holdcroft C, Ellison R "Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole reaction simulating pneumocystis carinii pneumonia." AIDS 5 (1991): 1029-42
  45. Gabazza EC, Taguchi O, Yamakami T, Machishi M, Ibata H, Suzuki S, Matsumoto K, Kitagawa T, Yamamoto J "Pulmonary infiltrates and skin pigmentation associated with sulfasalazine." Am J Gastroenterol 87 (1992): 1654-7
  46. Steinbrecher U, Mishkin S "Sulfamethoxazole-induced hepatic injury." Dig Dis Sci 26 (1981): 756-9
  47. Averbuch M, Halpern Z, Hallak A, Topilsky M, Levo Y "Sulfasalazine pneumonitis." Am J Gastroenterol 80 (1985): 343-5
  48. Marinac JS, Stanford JF "A severe hypersensitive reaction to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus." Clin Infect Dis 16 (1993): 178-9
  49. Ulstad D, Ampel N, Shon B, Galgiani JN, Cutcher AB "Reaction after re-exposure to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole." Chest 95 (1989): 937-8
  50. Smith E, Light J, Filo R, Yum M "Interstitial nephritis caused by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in renal transplant recipients." JAMA 244 (1980): 360-1
  51. Gibson J "Recurrent trimethoprim-associated fixed skin eruption." Br Med J 284 (1982): 1529-30
View all 51 references
Major

Topical Sulfonamides (Includes Cosopt) ↔ Porphyria

Severe Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Porphyria

Sulfonamides may be systemically absorbed when applied to the skin, eye, or mucosal membranes. Therapy with topical sulfonamides should be administered cautiously in patients with porphyria, since these drugs can precipitate an acute attack. The use of oral sulfonamides is considered contraindicated in patients with porphyria.

References

  1. "Product Information. Gantrisin (sulfisoxazole ophthalmic)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  2. "Product Information. Sulamyd Ophthalmic Solution (sodium sulfacetamide ophthalmic)." Schering Corporation, Kenilworth, NJ.
  3. "Product Information. Sultrin (triple sulfa topical)" Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Titusville, NJ.
  4. "Product Information. Azopt (brinzolamide ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX.
  5. "Product Information. Trusopt (dorzolamide ophthalmic)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  6. "Product Information. Sulfacet-R (sulfacetamide sodium topical)" Dermik Laboratories, Collegeville, PA.
  7. "Product Information. Klaron (sulfacetamide sodium topical)." Dermik Laboratories, Collegeville, PA.
  8. "Product Information. AVC Cream (sulfanilamide topical)" Aventis Pharmaceuticals, Swiftwater, PA.
View all 8 references
Moderate

Ophthalmic Beta-Blockers (Includes Cosopt) ↔ Myasthenia Gravis

Moderate Potential Hazard, Low plausibility

Applies to: Myoneural Disorder

Topically applied beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agents (aka beta-blockers) are systemically absorbed, with the potential for producing clinically significant systemic effects even at low or undetectable plasma levels. In the nervous and musculoskeletal systems, beta blockade may potentiate muscle weakness consistent with certain myasthenic symptoms such as diplopia, ptosis, and generalized weakness. Several beta-blockers have been associated rarely with aggravation of muscle weakness in patients with preexisting myasthenia gravis or myasthenic symptoms.

References

  1. Coppeto JR "Timolol-associated myasthenia gravis." Am J Ophthalmol 98 (1984): 244-5
  2. "Product Information. OptiPranolol (metipranolol)." Bausch and Lomb, Tampa, FL.
  3. "Product Information. Betagan Liquifilm (levobunolol)." Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA.
  4. "Product Information. Timoptic (timolol ophthalmic)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  5. Herishanu Y, Rosenberg P "Beta-blockers and myasthenia gravis." Ann Intern Med 83 (1975): 834-5
  6. "Product Information. Ocupress (carteolol ophthalmic)" Ciba Vision Ophthalmics, Duluth, GA.
  7. Confavreux C, Charles N, Aimard G "Fulminant myasthenia gravis soon after initiation of acebutolol therapy." Eur Neurol 30 (1990): 279-81
  8. Verkijk A "Worsening of myasthenia gravis with timolol maleate eyedrops." Ann Neurol 17 (1985): 211-2
  9. Berstein LP, Henkind P "Additional information on adverse reactions to timolol." Am J Ophthalmol 92 (1981): 295-6
  10. Benjamin KW "Toxicity of ocular medications." Int Ophthalmol Clin 19 (1979): 199-255
  11. "Product Information. Betaxon (levobetaxolol ophthalmic)" Alza, Palo Alto, CA.
  12. Choi KL, Wat MS, Ip TP, Kung AWC, Lam KSL "Phaeochromocytoma associated with myasthenia gravis precipitated by propranolol treatment." Aust N Z J Med 25 (1995): 257
  13. "Product Information. Betoptic (betaxolol ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX.
View all 13 references
Moderate

Topical Sulfonamides (Includes Cosopt) ↔ Crystalluria

Moderate Potential Hazard, Low plausibility

Applies to: Dehydration, Diarrhea, Vomiting

Sulfonamides may be systemically absorbed when applied to the skin, eye, or mucosal membranes. The use of sulfonamides has been associated with crystalluria due to precipitation of the sulfonamide and/or its N4-acetyl metabolite in the urinary tract. Renal toxicity such as uro- and nephrolithiasis, nephritis, toxic nephrosis, hematuria, proteinuria, and elevated BUN and creatinine has been reported. Hydration and adequate urinary output (> 1.5 L/day) should be maintained during sulfonamide administration. Patients who are dehydrated (e.g., due to severe diarrhea or vomiting) may be at increased risk for the development of crystalluria and lithiasis and should be encouraged to consume additional amounts of liquid. Renal function tests and urinalysis should be performed regularly during prolonged therapy (> 2 weeks).

References

  1. "Product Information. Sultrin (triple sulfa topical)" Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Titusville, NJ.
  2. "Product Information. Sulamyd Ophthalmic Solution (sodium sulfacetamide ophthalmic)." Schering Corporation, Kenilworth, NJ.
  3. Sasson JP, Dratch PL, Shortsleeve MJ "Renal US findings in sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria." Radiology 185 (1992): 739-40
  4. Molina J, Belenfant X, Doco-Lecompte T, et al "Sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria in AIDS patients with toxoplasma encephalitis." AIDS 5 (1991): 587-9
  5. "Product Information. Sulfacet-R (sulfacetamide sodium topical)" Dermik Laboratories, Collegeville, PA.
  6. Simon D, Brosius F, Rothstein D "Sulfadiazine crystalluria revisited." Arch Intern Med 150 (1990): 2379-84
  7. "Product Information. Trusopt (dorzolamide ophthalmic)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  8. Robson M, Levi J, Dolberg L, Rosenfeld J "Acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis following sulfadiazine therapy." Isr J Med Sci 6 (1970): 561-6
  9. "Product Information. Klaron (sulfacetamide sodium topical)." Dermik Laboratories, Collegeville, PA.
  10. Sahai J, Heimberger R, Collins K, Kaplowitz L, Polk R "Sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a reminder." Am J Med 84 (1988): 791-2
  11. Hein R, Brunkhorst R, Thon WF, Schedel I, Schmidt RE "Symptomatic sulfadiazine crystalluria in AIDS patients: a report of two cases." Clin Nephrol 39 (1993): 254-6
  12. "Product Information. Azopt (brinzolamide ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX.
  13. "Product Information. Gantrisin (sulfisoxazole ophthalmic)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  14. Erturk E, Casemento JB, Guertin KR, Kende AS "Bilateral acetylsulfapyridine nephrolithiasis associated with chronic sulfasalazine therapy." J Urol 151 (1994): 1605-6
  15. "Product Information. AVC Cream (sulfanilamide topical)" Aventis Pharmaceuticals, Swiftwater, PA.
View all 15 references
Moderate

Topical Sulfonamides (Includes Cosopt) ↔ Liver Disease

Moderate Potential Hazard, Low plausibility

Applies to: Liver Disease

Sulfonamides may be systemically absorbed when applied to the skin, eye, or mucosal membranes. Hepatotoxicity, including jaundice, diffuse hepatocellular necrosis, hypersensitivity hepatitis and hepatic failure, has rarely been reported in patients receiving sulfonamides. In addition, sulfonamides are partially metabolized by the liver and may accumulate in patients with hepatic impairment. Therapy with topical sulfonamides should be administered cautiously in patients with liver disease.

References

  1. Horak J, Mertl L, Hrabal P "Severe liver injuries due to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and sulfamethoxydiazine." Hepatogastroenterology 31 (1984): 199-200
  2. Leroux JL, Ghezail M, Chertok P, Blotman F "Hypersensitivity reactions to sulfasalazine: skin rash, fever, hepatitis and activated lymphocytes." Clin Exp Rheumatol 10 (1992): 427
  3. Ribe J, Benkov KJ, Thung SN, Shen SC, LeLeiko NS "Fatal massive hepatic necrosis: a probable hypersensitivity reaction to sulfasalazine." Am J Gastroenterol 81 (1986): 205-8
  4. Ransohoff D, Jacobs G "Terminal hepatic failure following a small dose of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim." Gastroenterology 80 (1981): 816-9
  5. "Product Information. Trusopt (dorzolamide ophthalmic)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  6. Gremse DA, Bancroft J, Moyer MS "Sulfasalazine hypersensitivity with hepatotoxicity, thrombocytopenia, and erythroid hypoplasia." J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 9 (1989): 261-3
  7. "Product Information. Azopt (brinzolamide ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX.
  8. Klotz U "Clinical pharmacokinetics of sulphasalazine, its metabolites and other prodrugs of 5-aminosalicylic acid." Clin Pharmacokinet 10 (1985): 285-302
  9. "Product Information. Klaron (sulfacetamide sodium topical)." Dermik Laboratories, Collegeville, PA.
  10. "Product Information. Sulfacet-R (sulfacetamide sodium topical)" Dermik Laboratories, Collegeville, PA.
  11. "Product Information. AVC Cream (sulfanilamide topical)" Aventis Pharmaceuticals, Swiftwater, PA.
  12. Sotolongo RP, Neefe LI, Rudzki C, Ishak KG "Hypersensitivity reaction to sulfasalazine with severe hepatotoxicity." Gastroenterology 75 (1978): 95-9
  13. Stachowska B, Senczuk W "Studies on kinetics of sulfadiazine and trimethoprim excretion in man." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 25 (1987): 81-5
  14. Fich A, Schwartz J, Braverman D, Zifroni A, Rachmilewitz D "Sulfasalazine hepatotoxicity." Am J Gastroenterol 79 (1984): 401-2
  15. Patel RB, Welling PG "Clinical pharmacokinetics of co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole)." Clin Pharmacokinet 5 (1980): 405-23
  16. Rubin R "Sulfasalazine-induced fulminant hepatic failure and necrotizing pancreatitis." Am J Gastroenterol 89 (1994): 789-91
  17. Ortengren B, Magni L, Bergan T "Development of sulphonamide-trimethoprim combinations for urinary tract infections. part 3: pharmacokinetic characterization of sulphadiazine and sulphamethoxazole." Infection 7 (1979): s371-81
  18. Kremers P, Duvivier J, Heusghem C "Pharmacokinetic studies of co-trimoxazole in man after single and repeated doses." J Clin Pharmacol 14 (1974): 112-7
  19. Madsen S "A comparative study of the excretion of sulfonamide-metabolites in cases of renal failure and hepatitis." Chemotherapy 11 (1966): 1-9
  20. Kanner RS, Tedesco FJ, Kalser MH "Azulfidine- (sulfasalazine-) induced hepatic injury." Am J Dig Dis 23 (1978): 956-8
  21. Hekster C, Vree T "Clinical pharmacokinetics of sulphonamides and their N4-acetyl derivatives." Antibiot Chemother 31 (1982): 22-118
  22. Losek JD, Werlin SL "Sulfasalazine hepatotoxicity." Am J Dis Child 135 (1981): 1070-2
  23. Khan AK, Truelove SC, Aronson JK "The disposition and metabolism of sulphasalazine (salicylazosulphapyridine) in man." Br J Clin Pharmacol 13 (1982): 523-8
  24. Bergan T, Brodwall EK "Human pharmacokinetics of a sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim combination." Acta Med Scand 192 (1972): 483-92
  25. Ortengren B, Fellner H, Bergan T "Development of sulphonamide-trimethoprim combinations for urinary tract infections. Part 2: Comparative pharmacokinetics of five sulphonamides." Infection 7 Suppl 4 (1979): s367-70
  26. Hofer T, Becker EW, Weigand K, Berg PA "Demonstration of sensititzed lymphocytes to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and ofloxacin in a patient with cholestatic hepatitis." J Hepatol 15 (1992): 262-3
  27. Stevenson D, Christie D, Haas J "Hepatic injury in a child caused by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole." Pediatrics 61 (1978): 864-6
  28. Namias A, Bhalotra R, Donowitz M "Reversible sulfasalazine-induced granulomatous hepatitis." J Clin Gastroenterol 3 (1981): 193-8
  29. "Product Information. Sulamyd Ophthalmic Solution (sodium sulfacetamide ophthalmic)." Schering Corporation, Kenilworth, NJ.
  30. Kowdley K, Keeffe E, Fawaz K "Prolonged cholestasis due to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole." Gastroenterology 102 (1992): 2148-50
  31. Marinos G, Riley J, Painter DM, McCaughan GW "Sulfasalazine-induced fulminant hepatic failure." J Clin Gastroenterol 14 (1992): 132-5
  32. Schroder H, Campbell DE "Absorption, metabolism, and excretion of salicylazosulfapyridine in man." Clin Pharmacol Ther 13 (1972): 539-51
  33. Simma B, Meister B, Deutsch J, Sperl W, Fend F, Ofner D, Margreiter R, Vogel W "Fulminant hepatic failure in a child as a potential adverse effect of trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole." Eur J Pediatr 154 (1995): 530-3
  34. Alberti-Flor JJ, Hernandez ME, Ferrer JP, Howell S, Jeffers L "Fulminant liver failure and pancreatitis associated with the use of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim." Am J Gastroenterol 84 (1989): 1577-9
  35. Poland GA, Love KR "Marked atypical lymphocytosis, hepatitis, and skin rash in sulfasalazine drug allergy." Am J Med 81 (1986): 707-8
  36. "Product Information. Sultrin (triple sulfa topical)" Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Titusville, NJ.
  37. "Product Information. Gantrisin (sulfisoxazole ophthalmic)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  38. Steinbrecher U, Mishkin S "Sulfamethoxazole-induced hepatic injury." Dig Dis Sci 26 (1981): 756-9
  39. Haines JD, Jr "Hepatotoxicity after treatment with sulfasalazine." Postgrad Med 79 (1986): 193-4,
  40. Andreasen F, Elsborg L, Husted S, Thomsen O "Pharmacokinetics of sulfadiazine and trimethoprim in man." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 14 (1978): 57-67
View all 40 references
Moderate

Topical Sulfonamides (Includes Cosopt) ↔ Renal Dysfunction

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Renal Dysfunction

Sulfonamides may be systemically absorbed when applied to the skin, eye, or mucosal membranes. Once absorbed, sulfonamides and their metabolites are eliminated by the kidney. Patients with renal impairment may be at greater risk for adverse effects from sulfonamides due to decreased drug clearance. Additionally, sulfonamides may cause renal toxicity secondary to crystalluria, including uro- and nephrolithiasis, nephritis, toxic nephrosis, hematuria, proteinuria, and elevated BUN and creatinine. Hydration and adequate urinary output (> 1.5 L/day) should be maintained during sulfonamide administration. Renal function tests and urinalysis should be performed regularly during prolonged therapy (> 2 weeks). Some manufacturers of topical sulfonamide products do not recommend their use in patients with impaired renal function.

References

  1. Cohen M, Pocelinko R "Renal transport mechanisms for the excretion of sulfisoxazole." J Pharmacol Exp Ther 185 (1973): 703-12
  2. "Product Information. Azopt (brinzolamide ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX.
  3. Christin S, Baumelou A, Bahri S, Ben Hmida M, Deray G, Jacobs C "Acute renal failure due to sulfadiazine in patients with AIDS." Nephron 55 (1990): 233-4
  4. "Product Information. Sulfacet-R (sulfacetamide sodium topical)" Dermik Laboratories, Collegeville, PA.
  5. Becker K, Jablonowski H, Haussinger D "Sulfadiazine-associated nephrotoxicity in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome." Medicine 75 (1996): 185-94
  6. Simon D, Brosius F, Rothstein D "Sulfadiazine crystalluria revisited." Arch Intern Med 150 (1990): 2379-84
  7. Madsen S "A comparative study of the excretion of sulfonamide-metabolites in cases of renal failure and hepatitis." Chemotherapy 11 (1966): 1-9
  8. Hekster C, Vree T "Clinical pharmacokinetics of sulphonamides and their N4-acetyl derivatives." Antibiot Chemother 31 (1982): 22-118
  9. Hein R, Brunkhorst R, Thon WF, Schedel I, Schmidt RE "Symptomatic sulfadiazine crystalluria in AIDS patients: a report of two cases." Clin Nephrol 39 (1993): 254-6
  10. Adam W, Dawborn J "Urinary excretion and plasma levels of sulphonamides in patients with renal impairment." Australas Ann Med 19 (1970): 250-4
  11. "Product Information. Trusopt (dorzolamide ophthalmic)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  12. Ohnhaus EE, Spring P "Elimination kinetics of sulfadiazine in patients with normal and impaired renal function." J Pharmacokinet Biopharm 3 (1975): 171-9
  13. Rieder J, Schwartz DE, Fernex M, et al "Pharmacokinetics of the antibacterial combination sulfamethoxazole plus trimethoprim in patients with normal or impaired kidney function." Antibiot Chemother 18 (1974): 148-98
  14. Robson M, Levi J, Dolberg L, Rosenfeld J "Acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis following sulfadiazine therapy." Isr J Med Sci 6 (1970): 561-6
  15. Patel RB, Welling PG "Clinical pharmacokinetics of co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole)." Clin Pharmacokinet 5 (1980): 405-23
  16. Ortengren B, Magni L, Bergan T "Development of sulphonamide-trimethoprim combinations for urinary tract infections. part 3: pharmacokinetic characterization of sulphadiazine and sulphamethoxazole." Infection 7 (1979): s371-81
  17. Marques L, Silva M, Madeira E, Santos O "Obstructive renal failure due to therapy with sulfadiazine in an AIDS patient." Nephron 62 (1992): 361
  18. Shermantine M, Gambertoglio J, Amend W, Vincenti F, Oie S "Pharmacokinetics of sulfisoxazole in renal transplant patients." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 28 (1985): 535-9
  19. "Product Information. Gantrisin (sulfisoxazole ophthalmic)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  20. Goadsby P, Donaghy A, Lloyd A, Wakefield D "Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and sulfadiazine-associated acute renal failure." Ann Intern Med 107 (1987): 783-4
  21. Erturk E, Casemento JB, Guertin KR, Kende AS "Bilateral acetylsulfapyridine nephrolithiasis associated with chronic sulfasalazine therapy." J Urol 151 (1994): 1605-6
  22. Stachowska B, Senczuk W "Studies on kinetics of sulfadiazine and trimethoprim excretion in man." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 25 (1987): 81-5
  23. Marques LP, Silva MT, Madeira EP, Santos OR "Obstructive renal failure due to therapy with sulfadiazine in an AIDS patient." Nephron 62 (1992): 361
  24. Vergin H, Ferber H, Zimmermann I, Neurath GB "Single and multiple dose kinetics of co-tetroxazine and co-trimoxazole in patients." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 19 (1981): 350-7
  25. Kremers P, Duvivier J, Heusghem C "Pharmacokinetic studies of co-trimoxazole in man after single and repeated doses." J Clin Pharmacol 14 (1974): 112-7
  26. "Product Information. Klaron (sulfacetamide sodium topical)." Dermik Laboratories, Collegeville, PA.
  27. Bergan T, Brodwall EK, Vik-Mo H, Anstad U "Pharmacokinetics of sulphadiazine, sulphamethoxazole and trimethoprim in patients with varying renal function." Infection 7 (1979): s382-7
  28. "Product Information. Sulamyd Ophthalmic Solution (sodium sulfacetamide ophthalmic)." Schering Corporation, Kenilworth, NJ.
  29. Sahai J, Heimberger R, Collins K, Kaplowitz L, Polk R "Sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a reminder." Am J Med 84 (1988): 791-2
  30. Carbone L, Bendixen B, Appel G "Sulfadiazine-associated obstructive nephropathy occurring in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome." Am J Kidney Dis 12 (1988): 72-5
  31. Bergan T, Brodwall EK "Human pharmacokinetics of a sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim combination." Acta Med Scand 192 (1972): 483-92
  32. "Product Information. Sultrin (triple sulfa topical)" Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Titusville, NJ.
  33. Farinas MC, Echevarria S, Sampedro I, Gonzalez A, Perez del Molino A, Gonzalez-Macias J "Renal failure due to sulphadiazine in AIDS patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis." J Intern Med 233 (1993): 365-7
  34. Adam WR, Henning M, Dawborn JK "Excretion of trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole in patients with renal failure." Aust N Z J Med 3 (1973): 383-7
  35. Molina J, Belenfant X, Doco-Lecompte T, et al "Sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria in AIDS patients with toxoplasma encephalitis." AIDS 5 (1991): 587-9
  36. Rudra T, Webb D, Evans A "Acute tubular necrosis following co-trimoxazole therapy." Nephron 53 (1989): 85-6
  37. Sasson JP, Dratch PL, Shortsleeve MJ "Renal US findings in sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria." Radiology 185 (1992): 739-40
  38. Dwarakanath AD, Michael J, Allan RN "Sulphasalazine-induced renal failure." Gut 33 (1992): 1006-7
  39. Smith E, Light J, Filo R, Yum M "Interstitial nephritis caused by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in renal transplant recipients." JAMA 244 (1980): 360-1
  40. Cryst C, Hammar S "Acute granulomatous interstitial nephritis due to co-trimoxazole." Am J Nephrol 8 (1988): 483-8
  41. Andreasen F, Elsborg L, Husted S, Thomsen O "Pharmacokinetics of sulfadiazine and trimethoprim in man." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 14 (1978): 57-67
  42. "Product Information. AVC Cream (sulfanilamide topical)" Aventis Pharmaceuticals, Swiftwater, PA.
  43. Ortengren B, Fellner H, Bergan T "Development of sulphonamide-trimethoprim combinations for urinary tract infections. Part 2: Comparative pharmacokinetics of five sulphonamides." Infection 7 Suppl 4 (1979): s367-70
  44. Bergan T, Brodwall E, Vik-Mo H, Anstad U "Pharmacokinetics of sulphadiazine, sulphamethoxazole and trimethoprim in patients with varying renal function." Infection 7 (1979): s382-7
View all 44 references
Moderate

Topical Sulfonamides (Includes Cosopt) ↔ Urinary Obstruction

Moderate Potential Hazard, Low plausibility

Applies to: Urinary Retention

Sulfonamides may be systemically absorbed when applied to the skin, eye, or mucosal membranes. Once absorbed, sulfonamides are excreted and concentrated in the urine. Therapy with topical sulfonamides should be administered cautiously in patients with urinary obstruction or retention, since excessive drug accumulation may occur. These patients may also be at increased risk for sulfonamide crystalluria, which may be associated with renal toxicity such as uro- and nephrolithiasis, nephritis, toxic nephrosis, hematuria, proteinuria, and elevated BUN and creatinine. A urinary output of at least 1.5 L/day should be maintained during sulfonamide administration. Renal function tests and urinalysis should be performed regularly during prolonged therapy (> 2 weeks).

References

  1. "Product Information. Sulamyd Ophthalmic Solution (sodium sulfacetamide ophthalmic)." Schering Corporation, Kenilworth, NJ.
  2. Erturk E, Casemento JB, Guertin KR, Kende AS "Bilateral acetylsulfapyridine nephrolithiasis associated with chronic sulfasalazine therapy." J Urol 151 (1994): 1605-6
  3. Marques LP, Silva MT, Madeira EP, Santos OR "Obstructive renal failure due to therapy with sulfadiazine in an AIDS patient." Nephron 62 (1992): 361
  4. "Product Information. Gantrisin (sulfisoxazole ophthalmic)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  5. Sasson JP, Dratch PL, Shortsleeve MJ "Renal US findings in sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria." Radiology 185 (1992): 739-40
  6. "Product Information. Sultrin (triple sulfa topical)" Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Titusville, NJ.
  7. Hein R, Brunkhorst R, Thon WF, Schedel I, Schmidt RE "Symptomatic sulfadiazine crystalluria in AIDS patients: a report of two cases." Clin Nephrol 39 (1993): 254-6
  8. "Product Information. Sulfacet-R (sulfacetamide sodium topical)" Dermik Laboratories, Collegeville, PA.
  9. Molina J, Belenfant X, Doco-Lecompte T, et al "Sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria in AIDS patients with toxoplasma encephalitis." AIDS 5 (1991): 587-9
  10. "Product Information. Klaron (sulfacetamide sodium topical)." Dermik Laboratories, Collegeville, PA.
  11. Simon D, Brosius F, Rothstein D "Sulfadiazine crystalluria revisited." Arch Intern Med 150 (1990): 2379-84
  12. "Product Information. Azopt (brinzolamide ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX.
  13. "Product Information. AVC Cream (sulfanilamide topical)" Aventis Pharmaceuticals, Swiftwater, PA.
  14. Sahai J, Heimberger R, Collins K, Kaplowitz L, Polk R "Sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a reminder." Am J Med 84 (1988): 791-2
  15. Carbone L, Bendixen B, Appel G "Sulfadiazine-associated obstructive nephropathy occurring in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome." Am J Kidney Dis 12 (1988): 72-5
  16. Marques L, Silva M, Madeira E, Santos O "Obstructive renal failure due to therapy with sulfadiazine in an AIDS patient." Nephron 62 (1992): 361
  17. "Product Information. Trusopt (dorzolamide ophthalmic)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
View all 17 references

Cosopt (dorzolamide / timolol ophthalmic) drug Interactions

There are 608 drug interactions with Cosopt (dorzolamide / timolol ophthalmic)

Drug Interaction Classification

The classifications below are a general guideline only. It is difficult to determine the relevance of a particular drug interaction to any individual given the large number of variables.
Major Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.
Moderate Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.
Minor Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.
Unknown No information available.

Do not stop taking any medications without consulting your healthcare provider.

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