Definition: any forced expiratory effort (“strain”) against a closed airway, whether at the nose and mouth or at the glottis, the reverse of Müller maneuver; because high intrathoracic pressure impedes venous return to the right atrium, this maneuver is used to study cardiovascular effects of raised peripheral venous pressure and decreased cardiac filling and cardiac output, as well as poststrain responses.
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Examples: glitazone, GI cocktail, etc.