Definition: A chronic infection involving the subcutaneous tissue, skin, and contiguous bone; characterized by the formation of localized lesions with tumefactions and multiple draining sinuses. The exudate contains granules that may be yellow, white, red, brown, or black, depending on the causative agent. Mycetoma is caused by two principal groups of microorganisms: 1) actinomycetoma is caused by actinomycetes, including species of Streptomyces, Actinomadurae, and Nocardia, 2) eumycetoma is caused by true fungi, including species of Madurella, Exophiala, Pseudallescheria, Curvularia, Neotestudina, Pyrenochaeta, Aspergillus, Leptosphaeria, Plemodomus, Polycytella, Fusarium, Phialophora, Corynespora, Cylindrocarpon, Pseudo-chaetosphaeronema, Bipolaris, and Acremonium.
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