maple syrup urine disease
Definition: an inborn error of metabolism caused by defective oxidative decarboxylation of a-keto acids of leucine, isoleucine, and valine; these branched-chain amino acids are present in the blood and urine in high concentrations; manifestations of disease include feeding difficulties, physical and mental retardation, and a urine odor similar to that of maple syrup; neonatal death is common. Autosomal recessive inheritance, caused by mutation in the E1, E2 or E3 subunit of the branched-chain a-keto acid dehydrogenase gene (BCKDH) on 19q. There are various forms differentiated by the subunit of BCKDH mutated.
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Examples: glitazone, GI cocktail, etc.