a stereotactic surgical technique that uses preoperative CT or MRI data that are matched to the corresponding surgical anatomy using three-dimensional coordinates. These coordinates may be surface markers attached to the skin overlying the imaged anatomy or, in the case of spinal navigation, may be discreet anatomic landmarks on the exposed surgical anatomy. The technique is used for sundry intracranial, spinal, ENT, and orthopedic procedures to enhance intraoperative accuracy and anatomic orientation.
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Examples: glitazone, GI cocktail, etc.