- the arches that collectively comprise the thoracic cage, each consisting of a vertebra (body, pedicle, and transverse processes), the corresponding pair of ribs and their articular cartilages, and the portion of the sternum to which they attach.
- three or four V-shaped bones located ventral to the bodies of the third to sixth coccygeal vertebrae; they represent intercentra and usually enclose the ventral caudal artery and vein.
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