- inadequacy of the heart so that as a pump it fails to maintain the circulation of blood, with the result that congestion and edema develop in the tissues;
- resulting clinical syndromes include shortness of breath, pitting or nonpitting edema, enlarged tender liver, engorged neck veins, and pulmonary rales in various combinations.
Synonym(s): cardiac failure, cardiac insufficiency, congestive heart failure, myocardial insufficiency
See Also: forward heart failure, backward heart failure, right ventricular failure, left ventricular failure
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