- A defect in structure or function.
- In biostatistics: a mistaken decision, as in hypothesis testing or classification by a discriminant function; or the difference between the true value and the observed value of a variate, ascribed to randomness or misreading by an observer.
- False-positive and false-negative results in a dichotomous trial.
- A false or mistaken belief; in biomedical and other sciences, there are many varieties of error, for example, due to bias, inaccurate measurements, or faulty instruments.
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