Definition: a classification of the extent of invasion of a resected adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum commonly modified as follows: A (Dukes A), confined to the mucosa; B1, into the muscularis propria; B2, through the muscularis propria; C1, with nodal metastases; C2, counterpart to B2 with nodal metastases; D, distant metastatic disease.
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Examples: glitazone, GI cocktail, etc.