- nystagmus present at birth or caused by lesions sustained in utero or at the time of birth;
- inherited nystagmus, usually X-linked, without associated neurologic lesions and nonprogressive; all three patterns of mendelian inheritance may occur: autosomal dominant [MIM*164100, *164150], autosomal recessive [MIM*257400], or X-linked recessive [MIM*310800, *310700];
- the nystagmus associated with albinism, achromatopsia, and hypoplasia of the macula.
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