Definition: A hard connective tissue consisting of cells embedded in a matrix of mineralized ground substance and collagen fibers. The fibers are impregnated with inorganic components, including crystals of calcium phosphate, such that using X-ray defraction, they are seen to be organized in a hydroxyapatite pattern (calcium phosphate is 85% by weight) as well as calcium carbonate (10%), and magnesium; by weight, bone is composed of 65–75% inorganic and 25–35% organic material; a portion of osseous tissue of definite shape and size, forming a part of the animal skeleton; in humans there are approximately 200 distinct bones in the skeleton, not including the auditory ossicles of the tympanic cavity or the sesamoid bones other than the two patellae. A bone is enveloped by a fibrous membrane, periosteum, that covers the bone's entire surface except for the articular cartilage. Beneath the periosteum is a dense layer, compact bone, and beneath that a cancellous layer, spongy bone. The core of a long bone is filled with marrow.
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