Amgen Announces Positive Top-Line Results From Phase 3 RUTHERFORD-2 Trial Of Evolocumab (AMG 145) In Patients With Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia
THOUSAND OAKS, Calif., Jan. 30, 2014 /PRNewswire/ -- Amgen (NASDAQ:AMGN) today announced that the Phase 3 RUTHERFORD-2 (RedUction of LDL-C with PCSK9 InhibiTion in HEteRozygous Familial HyperchOlesteRolemia Disorder Study-2) trial evaluating evolocumab in combination with statins and other lipid-lowering therapies in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) met its co-primary endpoints: the percent reduction from baseline in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) at week 12 and the mean percent reduction from baseline in LDL-C at weeks 10 and 12. The mean percent reductions in LDL-C, or "bad" cholesterol, were consistent with the results observed for the same doses in the Phase 2 RUTHERFORD trial for evolocumab compared to placebo.1
Evolocumab is an investigational fully human monoclonal antibody that inhibits proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), a protein that reduces the liver's ability to remove LDL-C from the blood.2
The RUTHERFORD-2 trial evaluated safety, tolerability and efficacy of evolocumab in 329 HeFH patients on a stable dose of statin and other lipid-lowering therapies. Patients were randomized to one of four treatment groups to compare subcutaneous evolocumab (140 mg every two weeks or 420 mg monthly) with subcutaneous placebo (every two weeks or monthly).
Safety was balanced across treatment groups except for the following most common adverse events (≥ 2 percent in evolocumab combined group and ≥ 2 percent compared to placebo): nasopharyngitis (8.6 percent evolocumab; 4.6 percent placebo), contusion (4.1 percent evolocumab; 0.9 percent placebo), back pain (3.6 percent evolocumab; 0.9 percent placebo), nausea (3.6 percent evolocumab; 0.9 percent placebo), influenza (3.2 percent evolocumab; 0.0 percent placebo), and myalgia (2.7 percent evolocumab; 0.0 percent placebo).
"Data from the RUTHERFORD-2 study suggest that evolocumab, when used as an add-on therapy to existing lipid-lowering medications, may offer a new treatment option for patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia," said Sean E. Harper, M.D., executive vice president of Research and Development at Amgen. "The RUTHERFORD-2 study is the fifth pivotal LDL-C lowering study in our Phase 3 program. The robust data from these five studies will form the basis of our global filing plan and we look forward to discussions with regulatory agencies."
Details of the Phase 3 RUTHERFORD-2 study results will be submitted to a future medical conference and for publication.
In a separate Phase 3 study that enrolled 164 patients with high cholesterol on statin therapy, 95 percent or greater of patients were able to self-administer at least one full home administration of evolocumab 420 mg subcutaneously by one injection with an automated mini-doser or by three injections with a standard spring-based autoinjector. Reductions in LDL-C were comparable with both devices and consistent to those seen in the Phase 2 LAPLACE-TIMI 57 (LDL-C Assessment with PCSK9 MonoclonaL Antibody Inhibition Combined with Statin ThErapy -Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction-57) trial. Safety was balanced between the treatment groups and no new safety concerns were identified.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than 71 million American adults have high LDL-C.3 Elevated LDL-C is recognized as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease.4-5 Patients with familial hypercholesterolemia, an inherited condition that causes high levels of LDL-C levels beginning at birth, are at high-risk for cardiovascular events at an early age.6 Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia is one of the most common genetic disorders, affecting approximately one out of every 300 to 500 people worldwide.7
RUTHERFORD-2 Study Design
RUTHERFORD-2 (RedUction of LDL-C with PCSK9 InhibiTion in HEteRozygous Familial HyperchOlesteRolemia Disorder Study-2) is a Phase 3 randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial designed to evaluate the safety, tolerability and efficacy of evolocumab in 329 patients with HeFH and an LDL-C >100 mg/dL who were on a stable dose of statin therapy and lipid-lowering medication. Patients were randomized to one of four treatment groups to compare subcutaneous evolocumab (140 mg every two weeks or 420 mg monthly) with subcutaneous placebo (every two weeks or monthly). The co-primary endpoints were the percent reduction from baseline in LDL-C at week 12 and the mean percent reduction from baseline in LDL-C at weeks 10 and 12. Co-secondary efficacy endpoints included means at weeks 10 and 12 and at week 12 for the following: absolute change from baseline in LDL-C; LDL-C < 70 mg/dL; and the percentage change from baseline in non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C ratio, ApoB/apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) ratio, lipoprotein(a), triglycerides, HDL-C and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C).
About PROFICIO: The Evolocumab Clinical Trial Program
PROFICIO, which stands for the Program to Reduce LDL-C and Cardiovascular Outcomes Following Inhibition of PCSK9 In Different POpulations, is a large and comprehensive clinical trial program evaluating evolocumab. Phase 3 clinical trials for evolocumab are currently underway and build upon the Phase 2 studies.
The Phase 3 program includes 13 trials, with a combined planned enrollment of more than 28,000 patients. The Phase 3 studies will evaluate evolocumab administered every two weeks and monthly in multiple patient populations, including in combination with statins in patients with hyperlipidemia (LAPLACE-2), in patients with hyperlipidemia who cannot tolerate statins (GAUSS-2), as a stand-alone treatment in patients with hyperlipidemia (MENDEL-2), and in patients whose elevated cholesterol is caused by genetic disorders called heterozygous (RUTHERFORD-2) and homozygous (TESLA and TAUSSIG) familial hypercholesterolemia.
Five studies of evolocumab will provide long-term safety and efficacy data. These include FOURIER (Further Cardiovascular OUtcomes Research with PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects with Elevated Risk), which will assess whether treatment with evolocumab in combination with statin therapy compared to placebo and statin therapy reduces recurrent cardiovascular events in approximately 22,500 patients with cardiovascular disease, DESCARTES (Durable Effect of PCSK9 Antibody CompARed wiTh PlacEbo Study) in patients with hyperlipidemia at risk for cardiovascular disease, and GLAGOV (GLobal Assessment of Plaque ReGression with a PCSK9 AntibOdy as Measured by IntraVascular Ultrasound), which will determine the effect of evolocumab on coronary atherosclerosis in approximately 950 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization.
Additional information about clinical trials of evolocumab can be found at www.clinicaltrials.gov.
Evolocumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody that inhibits proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9).2 PCSK9 is a protein that targets LDL receptors for degradation and thereby reduces the liver's ability to remove LDL-C, or "bad" cholesterol, from the blood.8 Evolocumab, being developed by Amgen scientists, is designed to bind to PCSK9 and inhibit PCSK9 from binding to LDL receptors on the liver surface. In the absence of PCSK9, there are more LDL receptors on the surface of the liver to remove LDL-C from the blood.2
Amgen is committed to unlocking the potential of biology for patients suffering from serious illnesses by discovering, developing, manufacturing and delivering innovative human therapeutics. This approach begins by using tools like advanced human genetics to unravel the complexities of disease and understand the fundamentals of human biology.
Amgen focuses on areas of high unmet medical need and leverages its biologics manufacturing expertise to strive for solutions that improve health outcomes and dramatically improve people's lives. A biotechnology pioneer since 1980, Amgen has grown to be the world's largest independent biotechnology company, has reached millions of patients around the world and is developing a pipeline of medicines with breakaway potential.
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- Raal F, et al. Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol–Lowering Effects of AMG 145, a Monoclonal Antibody to Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 Serine Protease in Patients With Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia. Circ. 2012;126:2408-2417.
- Amgen Data on File, Investigator Brochure.
- CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Vital Signs: Prevalence, Treatment, and Control of High Levels of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol --- United States, 1999--2002 and 2005-2008. February 4, 2011. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6004a5.htm?s_cid=mm6004a5_w. Accessed January 2014.
- American Heart Association (2012). Why cholesterol matters. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Cholesterol/WhyCholesterolMatters/Why-Cholesterol-Matters_UCM_001212_Article.jsp. Accessed January 2014.
- World Health Organization. Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2010. Geneva, 2011.
- National Human Genome Research Institute. Learning About Familial Hypercholesterolemia. http://www.genome.gov/25520184. Accessed January 2014.
- World Health Organization. Familial Hypercholesterolaemia Report 1998.
- Abifadel M, et al. Mutations in PCSK9 cause autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia. Nat Genet. 2003;34:154-156.
Posted: January 2014