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Urinary Tract Infection In Children


A urinary tract infection (UTI) is when bacteria get inside your child's urinary tract. Your child's urinary tract includes his kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Urine is made in the kidneys, and it flows from the ureters to the bladder. Urine leaves your child's body through his urethra. Your child may have a lower UTI, which is an infection in his bladder and urethra.


You have the right to help plan your child's care. Learn about your child's health condition and how it may be treated. Discuss treatment options with your child's caregivers to decide what care you want for your child.


  • Even after your child takes medicine to treat his UTI, the infection may come back. If your child takes antibiotic medicine often or for long periods, he may develop resistance to antibiotics. Resistance means that germs in your child's body become harder to kill.
  • Without treatment, his infection and symptoms may get worse. The infection can spread to your child's blood, which can be life-threatening. The germs may spread to your child's kidneys, causing pyelonephritis. This can be a very serious condition, and your child may need treatment in the hospital. Pyelonephritis could lead to scarring in your child's kidneys and permanent kidney problems. Kidney problems may cause high blood pressure later in life. Kidney problems may also lead to kidney failure.


Informed consent

is a legal document that explains the tests, treatments, or procedures that your child may need. Informed consent means you understand what will be done and can make decisions about what you want. You give your permission when you sign the consent form. You can have someone sign this form for you if you are not able to sign it. You have the right to understand your child's medical care in words you know. Before you sign the consent form, understand the risks and benefits of what will be done to your child. Make sure all of your questions are answered.


is a small tube placed in your child's vein that is used to give him medicine or liquids.

IV fluids:

Your child may be given fluids through his IV to prevent dehydration.

Intake and output:

Caregivers may need to know how much liquid your child is getting and urinating. Your child may need to urinate into a container in bed or in the toilet. A caregiver will measure the amount of urine. If your child wears diapers, a caregiver may need to weigh them. Do not throw away diapers or flush urine down the toilet before asking a caregiver.


  • Antibiotics: This medicine is given to help prevent or treat an infection caused by bacteria.


  • Urine tests: A sample of your child's urine may be collected and sent to a lab to learn what germ is causing his infection. Your child's urine may be collected in the following ways:
    • Clean-catch: Your child may be able to give a urine sample by urinating into a cup.
    • Catheter: Your child may need a catheter put into his bladder to get a urine sample. Your child's urine will flow out of the catheter into a clean cup.
    • Suprapubic aspiration: A needle may be inserted into your child's abdomen and into his bladder to collect a urine sample.
  • Imaging tests: Your child may need imaging tests if his symptoms do not get better after he starts treatment. Imaging tests are pictures of your child's urinary tract that can show if his infection is in his kidneys. Imaging tests can check for reflux or other problems in your child's urinary tract. Your child may be given a dye before the pictures are taken to help caregivers see the pictures better. Tell your child's caregiver if he has ever had an allergic reaction to contrast dye. Your child may need any of the following:
    • Nuclear medicine tests: During nuclear medicine tests, your child is given a special liquid through an IV or a catheter. Pictures may be taken of your child's urinary tract while the liquid enters his body. Pictures may also be taken while your child urinates and after his bladder is empty.
    • Ultrasound: An ultrasound uses sound waves to show pictures on a monitor. An ultrasound may be done to show problems in your child's urinary tract.
    • Voiding cystourethrogram: A catheter is put into your child's urethra and bladder. Dye is put through the catheter, and pictures are taken of your child's urinary tract. The pictures are taken while the dye is going in and while your child is urinating.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.