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Mitral Stenosis


Mitral stenosis is a condition where the mitral valve in your heart is narrow. The mitral valve is between the left ventricle and left atrium of your heart. The lower left ventricle pumps blood into your upper left atrium. The valve opens and closes to direct blood flow through your heart. When the mitral valve is narrowed, blood flow through your heart may decrease. Your tissues and other organs will not have enough oxygen and nutrients to function properly.

Normal mitral valve Narrow mitral valve


Informed consent

is a legal document that explains the tests, treatments, or procedures that you may need. Informed consent means you understand what will be done and can make decisions about what you want. You give your permission when you sign the consent form. You can have someone sign this form for you if you are not able to sign it. You have the right to understand your medical care in words you know. Before you sign the consent form, understand the risks and benefits of what will be done. Make sure all your questions are answered.


is a small tube placed in your vein that is used to give you medicine or liquids.


  • Antibiotics: This medicine will help fight or prevent an infection. You may need it if you had rheumatic fever in the past so you do not get it again. You may need to take the medicine every day, or once a month.
  • Heart medicine: This medicine is given to slow your heart rate and help your heart fill with blood. This will help your heart pump blood to your body more efficiently.
  • Diuretics: This medicine is given to remove extra fluid that has collected in your heart, lungs, or legs. They are often called water pills. You may urinate more often when you take this medicine.
  • Blood thinners: This medicine helps prevent clots from forming in the blood. Clots can cause strokes, heart attacks, and death. Blood thinners make it more likely for you to bleed or bruise. Use an electric razor and soft toothbrush to help prevent bleeding.


  • EKG: This test records the electrical activity of your heart. It is used to check for an abnormal heart rhythm caused by mitral stenosis.
  • Chest x-ray: This is used to check the size of your heart and to look for fluid around your heart and lungs.
  • An echocardiogram is a type of ultrasound. Sound waves are used to show the structure and function of your heart.
  • Transesophageal echocardiogram: This test is also called a TEE. It may be done if your heart cannot be seen well during a regular echo. A TEE will show blood clots or a heart infection. You will be given medicine to relax you during a TEE. Healthcare providers will put a tube in your mouth that is moved down into your esophagus. The tube has a small ultrasound sensor on the end. Since your esophagus is right next to your heart, your healthcare provider can see your heart clearly.
  • Cardiac catheterization: This procedure is done to find and treat heart blockages. A thin, bendable tube is inserted into your arm, neck, or groin and moved into your heart. An x-ray may be used to guide the tube to the right place. Dye may be put into your vein so the pictures show up better on a monitor. Tell the healthcare provider if you have ever had an allergic reaction to contrast dye.


  • Valvotomy: This helps widen your mitral valve and allow blood to flow through easier. A catheter (long thin tube) with a balloon on the tip is inserted through a small skin incision in your arm or groin. The catheter is guided through a blood vessel, and into your left atrium near your mitral valve. When the balloon is inflated, it stretches the valve opening.
  • Valvuloplasty: Healthcare providers make an incision in your chest to repair and widen your mitral valve. The valve walls are separated or calcium buildup is removed. This helps improve blood flow through your heart.
  • Replacement: Healthcare providers make an incision in your chest to replace your damaged mitral valve. Part or all of your mitral valve is removed and a new valve is secured in place. You may get a new valve from a donor (another person or animal), or you may get an artificial valve. When you have an artificial valve, you may need to take antibiotic medicine when you have medical procedures. This includes before and after dental work or surgery. The antibiotic medicine will help prevent germs from causing an infection in your heart.


  • Your mitral valve may narrow again, even after treatment. Tissues, other heart valves, and nearby areas may get damaged during surgery. You may bleed more than expected. After surgery, you may get an infection. The sac that surrounds your heart and its large blood vessels may swell. The swelling may cause fluid to collect around your heart, making it hard for your heart to beat. The valves may stop working well and blood may flow back into the upper chamber of your heart.
  • You may get a blood clot in your leg or arm. This can cause pain and swelling, and it can stop blood from flowing where it needs to go in your body. The blood clot may break loose and travel to your lungs or brain. A blood clot in your lungs can cause chest pain and trouble breathing. A blood clot in your brain can cause a stroke. These problems can be life-threatening.
  • Without treatment, your symptoms, such as shortness of breath and fatigue may get worse. Blood and fluid may build up in your lungs, and your heart or lungs may begin to fail. You may get an infection in your heart. Mitral stenosis may cause abnormal heartbeats, which increase the risk of blood clots forming in your heart. You may have a stroke. If you are pregnant, mitral stenosis may cause health problems for you and your unborn baby. Your symptoms may get worse. These problems can be life-threatening.


You have the right to help plan your care. Learn about your health condition and how it may be treated. Discuss treatment options with your caregivers to decide what care you want to receive. You always have the right to refuse treatment.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.