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Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 In Adults
WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW:
What is diabetes mellitus type 2?
Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a disease that affects how your body uses glucose (sugar). Normally, when the blood sugar level increases, the pancreas makes more insulin. Insulin helps move sugar out of the blood so it can be used for energy. Type 2 diabetes develops because either the body cannot make enough insulin, or it cannot use the insulin correctly. After many years, your pancreas may stop making insulin.
What increases my risk for diabetes mellitus type 2?
- Physical inactivity
- Older age
- High blood pressure or high cholesterol
- A history of heart disease, gestational diabetes, or polycystic ovary syndrome
- Having delivered a baby that weighed more than 9 pounds
- A family member with diabetes
- Being African American, Latino, Native American, Asian American, or Pacific Islander
What are the signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus type 2?
You may have high blood sugar levels for a long time before symptoms appear. You may have any of the following:
- More hunger or thirst than usual
- Frequent urination
- Weight loss without trying
- Blurred vision
How is diabetes mellitus type 2 diagnosed?
You may need tests to check for type 2 diabetes mellitus starting at age 45. You may need any of the following: .
- An A1c test shows the average amount of sugar in your blood over the past 2 to 3 months. Your healthcare provider will tell you the A1c level that is right for you. The goal for your A1c is usually below 7%. He can help you make changes if a check shows the A1c is too high.
- A fasting plasma glucose test is when your blood sugar level is tested after you have not eaten for 8 hours.
- An oral glucose tolerance test starts with a blood sugar level check after you have not eaten for 8 hours. You are then given a glucose drink. Your blood sugar level is checked after 1 hour, and again after 2 hours. Healthcare providers look at how much your blood sugar level increases from the first check.
How is diabetes mellitus type 2 treated?
Type 2 diabetes can be controlled to prevent damage to your heart, blood vessels, and other organs. The goal is to keep your blood sugar at a normal level. You must eat the right foods, and exercise regularly. You may need hypoglycemic medicine or insulin if you cannot control your blood sugar level with nutrition and exercise. You may also need medicine to lower your risk for heart disease.
How do I check my blood sugar level?
You will be taught how to check a small drop of blood in a glucose monitor. You will need to check your blood sugar level at least 3 times each day if you are on insulin. Ask your healthcare provider when and how often to check during the day. If you check your blood sugar level before a meal , it should be between 80 and 130 mg/dL. If you check your blood sugar level 1 to 2 hours after a meal , it should be less than 180 mg/dL. Ask your healthcare provider if these are good goals for you. Write down your results, and show them to your healthcare provider. He may use the results to make changes to your medicine, food, and exercise schedules.
What do I need to know about nutrition?
A dietitian will help you make a meal plan to keep your blood sugar level steady. Do not skip meals. Your blood sugar level may drop too low if you have taken diabetes medicine and do not eat.
- Keep track of carbohydrates (sugar and starchy foods). Your blood sugar level can get too high if you eat too many carbohydrates. Eat fruits, legumes, vegetables, and whole grains. Your dietitian will help you plan meals and snacks that have the right amount of carbohydrates.
- Eat low-fat foods , such as skinless chicken and low-fat milk.
- Eat less sodium (salt). Limit high-sodium foods, such as soy sauce, potato chips, and soup. Do not add salt to food you cook. Limit your use of table salt. You should have less than 2300 mg of sodium per day.
- Eat high-fiber foods , such as vegetables, whole grain breads, and beans.
- Limit alcohol. Alcohol affects your blood sugar level and can make it harder to manage your diabetes. Women should limit alcohol to 1 drink a day. Men should limit alcohol to 2 drinks a day. A drink of alcohol is 12 ounces of beer, 5 ounces of wine, or 1½ ounces of liquor.
How much exercise do I need?
Exercise can help keep your blood sugar level steady, decrease your risk of heart disease, and help you lose weight. Exercise for at least 30 minutes, 5 days a week. Include muscle strengthening activities 2 days each week. Increase your daily activity during travel, at work, and during your free time. Work with your healthcare provider to create an exercise plan.
- Check your blood sugar level before and after exercise. Healthcare providers may tell you to change the amount of insulin you take or food you eat. If your blood sugar level is high, check your blood or urine for ketones before you exercise. Do not exercise if your blood sugar level is high and you have ketones in your urine or blood.
- If your blood sugar level is less than 100 mg/dL, have a carbohydrate snack before you exercise. Examples are 4 to 6 crackers, ½ banana, 8 ounces (1 cup) of milk, or 4 ounces (½ cup) of juice. Drink water or liquids that do not contain sugar before, during, and after exercise. Ask your dietitian or healthcare provider which liquids you should drink when you exercise.
- Do not sit for longer than 90 minutes.
What else can I do to manage my diabetes?
- Check your feet each day for sores. Wear shoes and socks that fit correctly. Do not trim your toenails. Ask your healthcare provider for more info about foot care.
- Maintain a healthy weight. Ask your healthcare provider how much you should weigh. A healthy weight can help you control your diabetes and prevent heart disease. Ask him to help you create a weight loss plan if you are overweight. Even a 10 to 15 pound weight loss can help you manage your blood sugar level. If you cannot maintain healthy weight by eating and exercising, your healthcare provider may recommend surgery. Surgery can be done to help you lose weight and keep weight off.
- Do not smoke. Nicotine can damage blood vessels and make it more difficult to manage your diabetes. Do not use e-cigarettes or smokeless tobacco in place of cigarettes or to help you quit. They still contain nicotine. Ask your healthcare provider for information if you currently smoke and need help quitting.
- Wear medical alert identification. Wear medical alert jewelry or carry a card that says you have diabetes. Ask your healthcare provider where to get these items.
- Ask about vaccines. You have a higher risk for serious illness if you get the flu, pneumonia, or hepatitis. Ask your healthcare provider if you should get a flu, pneumonia, or hepatitis B vaccine, and when to get the vaccine.
What are the risks of diabetes mellitus type 2?
Uncontrolled diabetes can damage your nerves, veins, and arteries. High blood sugar levels may damage other body tissue and organs over time. Damage to arteries may increase your risk for heart attack and stroke. Nerve damage may also lead to other heart, stomach, and nerve problems. Diabetes is life-threatening if it is not controlled.
Call 911 for any of the following:
- You have any of the following signs of a stroke:
- Numbness or drooping on one side of your face
- Weakness in an arm or leg
- Confusion or difficulty speaking
- Dizziness, a severe headache, or vision loss
- You have any of the following signs of a heart attack:
- Squeezing, pressure, or pain in your chest that lasts longer than 5 minutes or returns
- Discomfort or pain in your back, neck, jaw, stomach, or arm
- Trouble breathing
- Nausea or vomiting
- Lightheadedness or a sudden cold sweat, especially with chest pain or trouble breathing
When should I seek immediate care?
- You have severe abdominal pain, or the pain spreads to your back. You may also be vomiting.
- You have trouble staying awake or focusing.
- You are shaking or sweating.
- You have blurred or double vision.
- Your breath has a fruity, sweet smell.
- Your breathing is deep and labored, or rapid and shallow.
- Your heartbeat is fast and weak.
When should I contact my healthcare provider?
- You are vomiting or have diarrhea.
- You have an upset stomach and cannot eat the foods on your meal plan.
- You feel weak or more tired than usual.
- You feel dizzy, have headaches, or are easily irritated.
- Your skin is red, warm, dry, or swollen.
- You have a wound that does not heal.
- You have numbness in your arms or legs.
- You have questions or concerns about your condition or care.
Care AgreementYou have the right to help plan your care. Learn about your health condition and how it may be treated. Discuss treatment options with your caregivers to decide what care you want to receive. You always have the right to refuse treatment. The above information is an educational aid only. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatments. Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist before following any medical regimen to see if it is safe and effective for you.
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