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Childhood Obesity: Is a U.S. Epidemic Improving?

Medically reviewed on Nov 30, 2016 by L. Anderson, PharmD

Childhood Obesity in America

Childhood obesity is a national public health concern for the U.S. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), obesity affects 31.8% of all children and adolescents in the United States, which equates to 12.5 million children - triple the rate from 1980.

Obesity in children is defined as a body mass index (BMI) at or above the 95th percentile for children of the same age and gender. A child who is overweight is at the 85th to less than the 95th percentile. Normal BMI is at the 5th percentile to less than the 85th percentile for children. Your pediatrician will calculate these numbers on a growth chart, and help you to interpret their meaning.

A major concern with childhood obesity stems from the fact that obesity as a child can result in a lifetime of being overweight with health risks that come along with this condition: type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, sleep apnea, gallstones, heartburn, depression, and low self-esteem and bullying. In fact, more than 80 percent of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight.

And the costs add up in terms of dollars, too. According to the Endocrine Society, childhood obesity costs roughly $14 billion each year, due to added prescription drugs, emergency room visits, and outpatient doctor appointments.

Obesity Statistics in Children

Latinos and African-American children tend to have higher rates of obesity than White or Asian populations. The determination of being overweight or obese in children is different than in adults.

In the United States, rates of obesity among children aged 2 to 19 are:

  • Non-hispanic Blacks 19.5%
  • Hispanics 21.9%
  • Non-hispanic whites 14.7%

Additionally, one of seven low-income, preschool-aged children is obese.

But are rates of obesity in children improving? According to federal health authorities, childhood obesity rates dropped over 43 percent among the 2- to 5-year-old age group from 2003 to 2012.1 This drop was the first decline seen for childhood obesity, which recent research states can also lead to increased risks for cancer, heart disease and strokes as an adult.

However, there were concerns that the number of children in the sample between 2 to 5 years of age was small, which may have skewed results, and that obesity rates (18 to 20 percent) remained high in older children and adolescents. In 2016, researchers from Rice University in Houston also questioned the results. But if these results can hold out, researchers say “significant reductions in obesity in later childhood can be expected, as well as significant declines in the overall rate of childhood obesity over time.”

On the other hand, a recent study revealed that 9 out of 10 high school students do not get adequate exercise to stay fit and healthy, and the pattern persists after they graduate.

Overweight or obese children run the risk of having serious health-related risks at an early age2:

  • High blood pressure and high cholesterol can lead to heart disease
  • Impaired glucose control and insulin resistance can lead to type 2 diabetes
  • Excess weight can lead to joint problems
  • Fatty liver disease, gallstones and reflux disease
  • Psycho-social issues due to body image which may continue into adulthood

What Causes Childhood Obesity?

Tackling the causes of childhood obesity often starts with the family life at home. Good eating habits, daily exercise, and portion control are important habits that can be encouraged and practiced at home -- by children and parents.

Being overweight or obese usually stems from one main problem: eating too many calories and not getting adequate exercise to burn off the excess consumed calories. However, genetic and hormonal problems can contribute to the problem in children, too. Plus, choices by parents, such as selection of grocery items, meals, snack allowance, and excessive screen time can lead to weight gain.

Contributors to Childhood Obesity

  • Selection and provision of unhealthy and calorie-laden food and beverages at home, school, and daycare.
  • Sugary drinks, vending machine and fast-food access are associated with excess calorie consumption
  • Lack of daily exercise at home and at school; children should get at least one hour of aerobic, physical activity each day.
  • Inadequate portion control leads to excess calories at mealtime
  • Lack of education and support for breastfeeding, which is associated with a reduced risk for childhood obesity
  • Use of electronics, such as computers, video game consoles, and television viewing can interfere with time for exercise

Other factors that can play into the excess consumption of calories and weight gain in children3, include lack of exercise, psychological factors, and socioeconomic factors.

All hope is not lost: studies have shown that a healthy diet as a teenager may increase the chances of a lifetime of healthy food choices and healthy weight as an adult. It's a goal parents should aim for -- with themselves and their children.

Test and Diagnostic Tools to Identify Obesity in Children

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a screening tool used to access weight issues in children. The CDC and the American Academy of Pediatrics suggest using the BMI tool at age two years and older. For children, BMI is used to screen for obesity, overweight, healthy weight, or underweight. However, BMI is not a diagnostic tool. For example, a child may have a high BMI for age and sex, but to determine if excess fat is a problem, a health care provider would need to perform further assessments. These assessments might include:

  • Skinfold thickness measurements
  • Evaluations of diet and physical activity
  • Review of family history of weight-related health risks
  • Other appropriate health screenings

How is Body Mass Index (BMI) Calculated for Children and Adolescents?

BMI is calculated in the same way for children over two years of age, adolescents, and teenagers as it is for adults. However, the growth chart used to interpret the results is different because certain factors, such as age and gender, affect the amount of body fat in a child.

The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) growth charts incorporate these differences and allow translation of a BMI number into a percentile rank based on a child's gender and age.4 For children and adolescents 2 to 19 years of age:

  • Underweight is defined as a BMI lower than the 5th percentile
  • Healthy weight is defined as a BMI at or above the 5th percentile to lower than the 85th percentile
  • Overweight is defined as a BMI at or above the 85th percentile and lower than the 95th percentile for children of the same age and gender.
  • Obesity is defined as a BMI at or above the 95th percentile for children of the same age and gender

Although the BMI number is calculated the same way for children and adults, the criteria used to interpret the meaning of the BMI number for children and teens are different from those used for adults.5 For children and teens, BMI age- and sex-specific percentiles are used for two reasons:

  • The amount of body fat changes with age
  • The amount of body fat differs between girls and boys

Because of these factors, the interpretation of BMI is both age- and sex-specific for children and teens. The CDC BMI-for-age growth charts take into account these differences and allows translation of a BMI number into a percentile for a child's sex and age. A pediatrician will determine the pediatric BMI at each yearly well visit.

Complications of Obesity in Children

The complications of being overweight or obese for children are similar as in adults:

  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • High cholesterol and blood pressure
  • Sleep apnea, breathing problems, asthma
  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
  • Early puberty or menstruation
  • Low-self esteem, bullying
  • Behavioral or learning problems
  • Depression

An approprate diagnosis and a more healthy lifestyle change can make a difference for children. A 2015 report from University of Texas Medical Center in Houston noted one of the youngest children ever diagnosed with type 2 diabetes was a three year old toddler. Both her weight and BMI were in the top five percent of all children her age. However, after adequate training for the parents on a healthy diet, treatment of the toddler with a liquid version of metformin (Glucophage), and a boost in physical activity, the child was able to stop medication six months after diagnosis. At that time she had dropped 25 percent of her body weight and had normal blood glucose levels.

Read More - Metformin: 10 Things You Should Know

Treatment of Obesity in Children

Gradual weight loss through diet is the rule for weight loss in children. However, only put your child on a weight loss diet if it is recommended and monitored by your pediatrician. Treatment of obesity in children may begin at an early age to help combat a lifetime of possible weight issues. A study published in the New England Journal of Medicine found the risk that obese children in kindergarten would be obese in eighth grade was four to five times that of their classmates without weight issues.6

According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, children aged 6 to 11 years should not lose more than one pound (or 0.5 kg) per month, while older children can aim for 2 pounds (1 kg) per week.

Avoid crash diets and weight loss supplements; instead choose healthy eating, added physical activity, and a family approach to a nutritious diet. Tips for healthy eating include:

  • Select fresh fruits and vegetables at the store over processed food
  • Limit sweetened beverages and fruit juices that can load up on empty calories
  • Stay away from fast-food
  • Enjoy mealtime together as a family away from the TV or computer
  • Be aware of portion sizes and eat slowly; enjoy conversation
  • Allow children to leave food on their plate if they are full
  • Never use food as a punishment or reward

School Lunches and Obesity

Are you concerned about lunch at school and if it might contribute to weight gain in your child? A 2016 study from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) found that school lunch guidelines put in place back in 2012 are improving students' eating habits. The new guidelines aimed to provide students with more fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fat-free or low-fat milk, and lower amounts of salt and saturated fats.

The FDA found that there was a 4 percent decline in the total lunch calories. Calories from fat fell 18 percent and salt consumption decreased 8 percent. However, students who received free and reduced-price lunches were more likely to choose entrees with higher levels of fat. This is a concern as this pediatric demographic is most likely to have obesity-related health risks. Bottom line for school lunches? Talk to your child about healthy food choices at school, help them learn what food is healthy versus unhealthy, and talk about what they ate at school each day.

Can Obese Children Have Weight Loss Surgery?

Up to 6 percent of American youths are severely obese, and these numbers may be rising. In 2016, roughly 1,000 teens had weight loss (bariatric) surgery. Weight loss surgery may be an option for some severely obese teenagers who have not lost weight with traditional weight loss measures. These teens may also end up with serious obesity-related medical conditions such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and sleep apnea.

Your pediatrician can assess whether your teenager might be a candidate for weight loss surgery. If your child is a candidate, a referral will be made to a weight loss surgeon and a team of experts. Your family will discuss the pros and cons of surgery, and any possible complications, with this team.

Weight loss surgeries can be expensive, so are they effective in teens? A 2016 study published in JAMA Surgery found that weight-loss surgery was not cost-effective over the first three years following the procedure, but it could become cost-effective over five years. The experts noted that life-altering weight loss could lead to prevention of disease and also allow patients to avoid lifelong social stigma that may come with obesity.7

Learn More: Surgery for Weight Loss: What Are the Options?

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Sources

  1. Tavernise S. Obesity Rate for Young Children Plummets 43% in a Decade. The New York Times. Accessed October 28, 2016. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/26/health/obesity-rate-for-young-children-plummets-43-in-a-decade.html
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Basics About Childhood Obesity. Accessed October 28, 2016. http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/childhood/basics.html
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Overweight and Obesity. A Growing Problem. Accessed October 28, 2016. http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/childhood/problem.html
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Healthy weight. About BMI for children and teens. Accessed October 28, 2016. http://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/assessing/bmi/childrens_bmi/about_childrens_bmi.html
  5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Healthy weight. About BMI for adults. Accessed October 28, 2016. http://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/assessing/bmi/adult_bmi/index.html#Interpreted
  6. Kolata G. Obesity Is Found to Gain Its Hold in Earliest Years. The New York Times. Accessed October 28, 2016. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/30/science/obesity-takes-hold-early-in-life-study-finds.html
  7. Healthychildren.org. Obesity. American Academy of Pediatrics. Accessed October 28, 2016 at https://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/obesity/Pages/default.aspx
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