Yes, absolutely. Some drugs change your body, especially rather sensitive portions like your nervous system, after just ONE dose. *Most* medical drugs will probably not cause *most* people to withdraw after just one week of use, but some drugs can, and some people do experience withdrawal after such a short period of usage.
The likelihood and severity of the withdrawal can sometimes be raised by quitting these medications without a careful taper, and higher doses of medications often correlate with a greater difficulty in quitting them and being okay afterwards. The potency of the drug, its method of action, and how sensitive the person in question is are some of the most important factors in whether or not a withdrawal is more likely to occur.
I do not have a broad knowledge of drug-types and the body's responses to them, but one general drug class that has been observed to cause withdrawal after just one week of use is psychiatric psychotropics, which includes medications such as antidepressants (SSRIs, SNRIs, tetracyclics, and so on), antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, etc.
It may not be the more common experience; I am not aware of reliable statistical figures for such a short duration of use either way, though withdrawal symptoms from some psychotropics (for example the antidepressant Cymbalta) are reported to be experienced by the majority of studied patients who take it for a 'normal' amount of time before quitting. Since people discontinuing a medication after just one week of use is already a minority of patients, it is harder to gauge the spectrum of possibilities and likelihoods given the very small sample of studied experiences, and most data on the matter are never published.
Very little study is done on drugs being taken only for sub-clinical durations, and even less study is done on the length or severity of withdrawal reactions to most medications because the parameters that would cover those topics are often beyond the scope of the only studies necessary to make them legally available.
Also to note: there is some debate amongst clinicians and health-monitoring organizations about what constitutes 'drug withdrawal' as opposed to 'drug dependence that is accompanied by lasting damage caused by the medication.' In this generalized post, I have treated both of these categories as being 'withdrawal,' especially because of the difficulty in biologically ascertaining which situation is the case in many patients.
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