Moderate Food Interaction
ADJUST DOSING INTERVAL: Administration with food increases the plasma concentrations of efavirenz and may increase the frequency of adverse reactions. According to the product labeling, administration of efavirenz capsules (600 mg single dose) with a high-fat/high-caloric meal (894 kcal, 54 g fat, 54% calories from fat) or a reduced-fat/normal-caloric meal (440 kcal, 2 g fat, 4% calories from fat) was associated with mean increases of 39% and 51% in efavirenz peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and 22% and 17% in systemic exposure (AUC), respectively, compared to administration under fasted conditions. For efavirenz tablets, administration of a single 600 mg dose with a high-fat/high-caloric meal (approximately 1000 kcal, 500-600 kcal from fat) resulted in a 79% increase in mean Cmax and a 28% increase in mean AUC of efavirenz relative to administration under fasted conditions.
MANAGEMENT: Efavirenz should be taken on an empty stomach, preferably at bedtime. Dosing at bedtime may improve the tolerability of nervous system symptoms such as dizziness, insomnia, impaired concentration, somnolence, abnormal dreams and hallucinations, although they often resolve on their own after the first 2 to 4 weeks of therapy . Patients should be advised of the potential for additive central nervous system effects when efavirenz is used concomitantly with alcohol or psychoactive drugs, and to avoid driving or operating hazardous machinery until they know how the medication affects them.
Minor Food Interaction
Food enhances the oral absorption and bioavailability of tenofovir, the active entity of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. According to the product labeling, administration of the drug following a high-fat meal increased the mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of tenofovir by approximately 14% and 40%, respectively, compared to administration in the fasting state. However, administration with a light meal did not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of tenofovir compared to administration in the fasting state. Food delays the time to reach tenofovir Cmax by approximately 1 hour. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate may be administered without regard to meals.
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- Atripla Information for Consumers
- Atripla Information for Healthcare Professionals (includes dosage details)
- Side Effects of Atripla (detailed)
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