"From a chemical point of view, diazepam, 7-chloro-1,3-dihydro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one, is the most simple of all of the examined derivatives of 1,4-benzodiazepin-2-ones. Various ways for the synthesis of diazepam from 2-amino-5-chlorobenzophenone have been proposed. The first two ways consist of the direct cyclocondensation of 2-amino-5-chlorobenzophenone or 2-methylamino-5-chlorobenzophenone with the ethyl ester of glycine hydrochloride. The amide nitrogen atom of the obtained 7-chloro-1,3-dihydro-5-phenyl-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one, is methylated by dimethylsulfate, which leads to the formation of diazepam.
The second way differs from the first in that the methylation of nitrogen is accomplished before the cyclocondensation reaction. In order to do this, the initial 2-amino-5-chlorobenzophenone is first tosylated by p-toluenesulfonylchloride and the obtained tosylate transformed into the N-sodium salt, which is then alkylated by dimethylsulfate. The resulting 2-N-tosyl-N-methyl-5-chlorobenzophenone is hydrolyzed in an acidic medium, giving 2-methylamino-5-chlorobenzophenone, which undergoes cyclocondensation by reaction with ethyl ester of glycine hydrochloride, forming the desired diazepam."
Source: Wikipedia (Diazepam) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diazepam
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