If taken according to directions (that is as little or infrequently) as possible there are no known long term side effects. This is not to say they don't occur, just that there has not been enough time to collect useful or meaningful data yet. Short term side effects are pretty standard and will affect different women differently; it/they cannot be predicted in advance.
Long term side effects are rarely looked at during clinical trials due to the expense so, as an example, one of the medications I take has only been tested by the manufacturer for 16 weeks. Nothing untoward happens in 16 weeks so it is approved for longer term use (years in my case). Many medications are only tested for limited periods of time before commercial release. The cost of just getting a drug to clinical trials is enormous so there is a huge incentive in proving safety for an intended period of use plus a margin. Over the following years manufacturers build up databases of any odd or strange adverse reactions.
I hope this helps you understand.
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