I just wanted to know.What the KEY ROLES of these 2 chemicals that are in your brain do and maybe some info on how to keep them balanced or stable.
Serotonin or 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter, biochemically derived from tryptophan, that is primarily found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, platelets, and central nervous system (CNS) of humans and animals. It is a well-known contributor to feelings of well-being.
Approximately 80 percent of the human body's total serotonin is located in the enterochromaffin cells , are a type of enteroendocrine cell occurring in the epithelia lining the lumen of the digestive tract and the respiratory tract in the gut, where it is used to regulate intestinal movements. The remainder is synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the CNS where it has various functions, including the regulation of mood, appetite, sleep, muscle contraction, and some cognitive functions including memory and learning. Modulation of serotonin at synapses is thought to be a major action of several classes of pharmacological antidepressants.
Serotonin secreted from the enterochromaffin cells eventually finds its way out of tissues into the blood. There, it is actively taken up by blood platelets, which store it. When the platelets bind to a clot, they disgorge serotonin, where it serves as a vasoconstrictor and helps to regulate hemostasis and blood clotting. Serotonin also is a growth factor for some types of cells, which may give it a role in wound healing.
Serotonin is eventually metabolized to 5-HIAA by the liver, and excreted by the kidneys. One type of tumor, called carcinoid, sometimes secretes large amounts of serotonin into the blood, which causes various forms of the carcinoid syndrome of flushing, diarrhea, and heart problems. Because of serotonin's growth promoting effect on cardiac myocytes, persons with serotonin-secreting carcinoid may suffer a right heart (tricuspid) valve disease syndrome, caused by proliferation of myocytes onto the valve.
Dopamine is a catecholamine( are sympathomimetic "fight-or-flight" hormones released by the adrenal glands in response to stress. They are part of the sympathetic nervous system.They are called catecholamines because they contain a catechol or 3,4-dihydroxylphenyl group and an ethylamine moiety. They are derived from the amino acid tyrosine ) neurotransmitter present in a wide variety of animals, including both vertebrates and invertebrates. In the brain, this phenethylamine functions as a neurotransmitter, activating the five types of dopamine receptors—D1, D2, D3, D4, and D5—and their variants. Dopamine is produced in several areas of the brain, including the substantia nigra( is a brain structure located in the mesencephalon (midbrain) that plays an important role in reward, addiction, and movement ) and the ventral tegmental area (better known as the ventral tegmental area (VTA), is a group of neurons located close to the midline on the floor of the midbrain (mesencephalon). The VTA is the origin of the dopaminergic cell bodies of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system and is widely implicated in the drug and natural reward circuitry of the brain. It is important in cognition, motivation, drug addiction, and several psychiatric disorders. The VTA contains neurons that project to numerous areas of the brain, from the prefrontal cortex (PFC) to the caudal brainstem and everywhere in between ). Dopamine is also a neurohormone released by the hypothalamus. Its main function as a hormone is to inhibit the release of prolactin from the anterior lobe of the pituitary.
I hope this helps.-
Take care my friend.-
I can help u understand functions of these two chemicals in the brain and outside it by their medications.
Dopamine is secretes in Substantia Nigra into the Caudate nucleus and putamen. This action helps to control normal bodily movements. Its effect is mediated here by D2 receptors and its deficiency in this part causes Parkinsonian disease.
PARKINSONISM DISEASE can be corrected by administration of a cogener of dopamine called levodopa.
Most of older antipsycotics like chlorpromazine, triflupromazine, fluphenazine, haloperidol, flupenthixol etc. exert their effect by blocking D2 Receptors in limbic system and others areas.
Accidently they may also block these receptors in caudate nucleus and putamen. So the most common side effect of these drugs is parkinsonism like symptoms.
Dopamine receptors are also in ctz of medulla and mediate vomitting.
Dopamine receptors blockers like Domperidone act at these sites and are used as antiemetic.
At periphery, D2 receptors in gut wall slow down gut motility.
Now lets talk about serotonin
Serotonin helps aintain normal mood by acting on a no. of receptors notably 5HT1AC.
most of tricyclis anti depressants inhibit reuptake of serotonin back into neurons and increase their levels.
Tricyclic antidepressants also inhibit reuptake of noradrenalone.
Newer anti depressants called Selective serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI) are widely used these days- Sertaline citalopram, fluoxetine.
Serotonin like dopamine also mediates vomitting in ctz by acting thro 5HT3 receptors and blockers of these receptors like Ondansetron are potent antiemetics.
It increases gut motility thro 5HT4 receptors in gut and agonists at these receptors like metoclopramide are antiemetics (prokinetic type) and also used in heart burn.
- Dopamine Information for Consumers
- Dopamine Information for Healthcare Professionals (includes dosage details)
- Side Effects of Dopamine (detailed)
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