The symptoms of pernicious anemia and vitamin B-12 deficiency can be treated by replenishing the vitamin B-12 supply in the body. If a condition other than pernicious anemia is responsible for vitamin B-12 deficiency, treatment must also be directed at the underlying condition. Symptoms of vitamin B-12 deficiency may be improved after just a few days of medical treatment.
Vitamin B-12 is typically given as an intramuscular injection (shot). An injection of 1000 micrograms (1 mg) of vitamin B-12 is generally given every day for one week, followed by 1 mg every week for four weeks and then 1 mg every month thereafter.
Alternative treatments for pernicious anemia include high-dose oral vitamin B-12, since a lower-efficiency absorption system for vitamin B-12 exists in the intestine that does not require the presence of IF. However, the oral dose required for this type of therapy (1 to 2 milligrams/day) is more than 200 times higher than the minimum daily vitamin B-12 requirement for adults and is significantly higher than that available in most standard multivitamins and B-12 supplements. Nasal spray and sublingual (under the tongue) preparations of vitamin B-12 are also available and are under investigation.
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