ScourGuard 3 (K)/C

This page contains information on ScourGuard 3 (K)/C for veterinary use.
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  • ScourGuard 3 (K)/C Indications
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  • Direction and dosage information for ScourGuard 3 (K)/C

ScourGuard 3 (K)/C

This treatment applies to the following species:
Manufacturer: Zoetis

Bovine Rota-Coronavirus Vaccine

Killed Virus

Clostridium Perfringens Type C-Escherichia Coli Bacterin-Toxoid

PRODUCT DESCRIPTION: ScourGuard 3 (K)/C is for vaccination of healthy, pregnant cows and heifers as an aid in preventing diarrhea in their calves caused by bovine rotavirus (serotype G6), bovine coronavirus, enterotoxigenic strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli) having the K99 pili adherence factor, and Clostridium perfringens (Cl. perfringens) type C (beta) toxin. ScourGuard 3 (K)/C contains a liquid preparation of inactivated bovine rotavirus and coronavirus propagated on established cell lines, a K99 E. coli bacterin, and Cl. perfringens type C toxoid. The vaccine is adjuvanted to enhance the immune response.

DISEASE DESCRIPTION: Neonatal calf diarrhea is a disease of complex origin that can be caused by both viral and bacterial agents. Enterotoxigenic E. coli, rotavirus, and coronavirus are commonly isolated from scouring calves, often in combination with other bacteria or viruses.1,2 Studies have shown that most enterotoxigenic E. coli strains isolated from scouring calves have K99 pili, antigenic structures which facilitate colonization of the gut lining.3,4 Enterotoxins produced by those strains, combined with intestinal cell damage by rotavirus and coronavirus, cause secretion of body fluids and electrolytes into the gut. Such fluid loss produces a severe diarrhea, which results in dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, and metabolic acidosis. Incidence of calf diarrhea is most frequent and severe within the first 2 weeks of life.5,6 Hence, a calf’s primary source of protection is immediate consumption of colostrum containing high levels of maternal antibodies for effective passive immunization.7,8

In cattle, infection with Cl. perfringens type C causes severe enteritis, dysentery, and toxemia, as well as high mortality in calves. It can also cause enterotoxemia in adult cattle.

EFFICACY: ScourGuard 3(K)/C has been demonstrated to be effective as an aid in preventing diarrhea caused by bovine rotavirus (serotype G6), bovine coronavirus, E. coli and Cl. perfringens type C in calves of vaccinated dams.

Efficacy of the bovine rotavirus (BRV) fraction of ScourGuard 3(K)/C was demonstrated in a challenge study conducted by Zoetis Inc. Healthy neonatal calves were removed from their dams prior to nursing, and were fed colostrum collected from heifers previously vaccinated with either ScourGuard 3(K)/C or a placebo. When challenged with BRV serotype G6, calves fed colostrum from ScourGuard 3(K)/C-vaccinated heifers showed significant reductions in mortality and in abnormal fecal, appetite, attitude and dehydration scores when compared to calves consuming colostrum from control cows.

Efficacy of the bovine coronavirus (BCV) fraction of ScourGuard 3(K)/C was also demonstrated in a challenge study. Calves were removed from their dams prior to nursing and were fed colostrum obtained from heifers previously vaccinated with the BCV fraction contained in ScourGuard 3(K)/C or a placebo. Following challenge, calves that received colostrum from vaccinated cows had significant reductions in mortality and abnormal appetite, attitude and dehydration scores when compared to calves consuming colostrum from control cows.

Efficacy of the E. coli K99 fraction of ScourGuard 3(K)/C was demonstrated in an additional study, designed similarly to the previous studies. Following challenge, 95% of calves (19 of 20) receiving colostrum from cows previously vaccinated with the E. coli fraction of ScourGuard 3(K)/C were protected. In contrast, 100% of calves (8 of 8) receiving colostrum from control cows died within 48 hours of challenge.

Table 1 shows antibody response in both colostrum and calf serum to Cl. perfringens type C toxoid, when administered as part of the combined vaccine (containing all the antigens in ScourGuard 3 (K)/C).

Table 1. Geometric Mean Antibody Response in Colostrum and Calf Serum to Cl. perfringens Type C (beta) Toxoid in a Polyvalent Vaccine

Test Group and Sample

Serologic Value*

Group 1 (Vaccinates)

 

Colostral Ab

>37.0

Calf serum Ab (3 days)

>17.7

Calf serum Ab (30 days)

8.6

Group 2 (Nonvaccinates)

 

Colostral Ab

<0.70

Calf serum Ab (3 days)

<0.73

Calf serum Ab (30 days)

0.53

* Geometric mean levels are antitoxin levels expressed in international units (IU) of antitoxin/mL for both colostrum and calf serum.

The protective level of type C antitoxin for cattle has not been determined experimentally, but a level of 0.10 to 0.15 IU/mL for both colostrum and serum has been determined to be protective in sheep,9 and that level is generally considered protective in cattle as well. Type C antitoxin levels in colostrum and calf serum far exceeding the 0.15 IU/mL level occurred following vaccination, even when calves were born as many as 117 days after the cow received her last vaccine dose.

Directions For Use

1. General Directions: Vaccination of healthy, pregnant cows is recommended. Shake well. Aseptically administer 2 mL intramuscularly (IM) only. In accordance with Beef Quality Assurance guidelines, this product should be administered in the muscular region of the neck.

2. Primary Vaccination: Administer 2 IM doses approximately 3 weeks apart to pregnant cows, with the second dose given 3-6 weeks before calving.

3. Revaccination: Revaccination with a single dose 3-6 weeks before each subsequent calving is recommended.

4. Good animal husbandry and herd health management practices should be employed.

Precautions

1. Store at 2°-7°C. Prolonged exposure to higher temperatures may adversely affect potency. Do not freeze.

2. Use entire contents when first opened.

3. Sterilized syringes and needles should be used to administer this vaccine.

4. Do not vaccinate within 21 days before slaughter.

5. Contains gentamicin and merthiolate as preservatives.

6. Transient temperature increases may occur following vaccination.

7. As with many vaccines, anaphylaxis may occur after use. Initial antidote of epinephrine is recommended and should be followed with appropriate supportive therapy.

8. This product has been shown to be efficacious in healthy animals. A protective immune response may not be elicited if animals are incubating an infectious disease, are malnourished or parasitized, are stressed due to shipment or environmental conditions, are otherwise immunocompromised, or the vaccine is not administered in accordance with label directions.

References

1. Moon HW, McClurkin AW, Isaacson RE, et al: Pathogenic relationships of rotavirus, Escherichia coli and other agents in mixed infections of calves. JAVMA 173:577-583, 1978.

2. Acres SD, Saunders JR, Radostits OM: Acute undifferentiated neonatal diarrhea in beef calves: The prevalence of enterotoxigenic E. coli, reo-like (rota) virus and other enteropathogens in cow-calf herds. Can Vet J 18:113-121, 1977.

3. Isaacson RE, Moon HW, Schneider RA: Distribution and virulence of Escherichia coli in the small intestines of calves with and without diarrhea. Am J Vet Res 39:1750-1755, 1978.

4. Moon HW, Whipp SC, Skartvedt SM: Etiologic diagnosis of diarrheal diseases of calves: Frequency and methods for detecting enterotoxin and K99 antigen production by Escherichia coli. Am J Vet Res 37:1025-1029, 1976.

5. The Merck Veterinary Manual, 6th edition, p. 367-368, 1986.

6. Saif LJ, Redman DR, Smith KL, et al: Passive immunity to bovine rotavirus in newborn calves fed colostrum supplements from immunized or nonimmunized cows. Infect Immun 41:1118-1131, 1983.

7. Acres SD, Isaacson RE, Babiuk K, et al: Immunization of calves against enterotoxigenic colibacillosis by vaccinating dams with purified K99 antigen and whole cell bacterins. Infect Immun 25:121-126, 1979.

8. Crouch CF: Vaccination against enteric rota and coronavirus in cattle and pigs: Enhancement of lactogenic immunity. Vaccine 3:284-291, 1985.

9. Kerry JB, Craig GR: Field studies in sheep with multicomponent clostridial vaccines. Vet Rec 105:551, 1979.

Technical inquiries should be directed to Zoetis Inc. Veterinary Services, (888) 963-8471 (USA), (800) 461-0917 (Canada).

For veterinary use only

U.S. Veterinary License No. 190

Zoetis Inc., Kalamazoo, MI 49007

75-4858-06

Presentation: 10 dose and 50 dose vials.

NAC No.: 36900643

ZOETIS INC.
333 PORTAGE STREET, KALAMAZOO, MI, 49007
Telephone:   269-833-4000
Customer Service:   800-733-5500 and 800-793-0596
Veterinary Medical Investigations & Product Support:   800-366-5288
Technical Services (USA):   800-366-5288
Website:   www.zoetis.com
Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the ScourGuard 3 (K)/C information published above. However, it remains the responsibility of the readers to familiarize themselves with the product information contained on the US product label or package insert.

Copyright © 2014 North American Compendiums. Updated: 2014-09-05

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