MICROGYNON 30 TABLETS

Active substance: LEVONORGESTREL

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Levonorgestrel
Ethinylestradiol
Five important things to
know about the Pill.
R The Pill is a reliable
contraceptive and may reduce
your risk of cancer of the ovary
and womb if used in the long
term.
R The Pill will not protect you
against sexually transmitted
diseases.
R This medicine can increase your
risk of problems such as blood
clots and breast cancer.
R Some women should not take
the Pill because of current
medical problems or illnesses.
Please read this leaflet to make
sure Microgynon 30 is right for
you.
R To prevent pregnancy it is
important to take
Microgynon 30 as instructed
and start each pack on time.
Please make sure that you
understand what to do if you
miss a pill or if you think you
are pregnant.
Read all of this leaflet carefully
before you start taking this
medicine.
R Keep this leaflet. You may need
to read it again.
R If you have any questions or
need more advice, ask your
doctor, family planning nurse
or pharmacist.
R This medicine has been
prescribed for you. Do not pass
it on to others. It may harm
them.
R If any of the side effects gets
severe, or if you notice any not
listed in this leaflet, please tell
your doctor, family planning
nurse or pharmacist.

Microgynon 30 is a combined oral
contraceptive pill (‘the Pill’). You
take it to stop you getting
pregnant.
This contraceptive contains two
types of female sex hormones,
oestrogen and
progestogen. These
hormones stop you
getting pregnant by
working in three ways:
by preventing an egg
being released from
your ovaries; by
making the fluid
(mucus) in your cervix
thicker, which makes
it more difficult for
sperm to enter the
womb; and by
preventing the lining
of your womb
thickening enough for
an egg to grow in it.
Microgynon 30 is a
21-day Pill – you take
one each day for
21 days, followed by
7 days when you take
no pills.
The benefits of
taking the Pill
include:
R it is one of the
most reliable reversible
methods of contraception if
used correctly
R it doesn’t interrupt sex
R it usually makes your periods
regular, lighter and less painful
R it may help with pre-menstrual
symptoms.
Microgynon 30 will not protect you
against sexually transmitted
infections, such as Chlamydia or
HIV. Only condoms can help to do
this.
Microgynon 30 needs to be taken
as directed to prevent pregnancy.

1. What Microgynon 30
does

In this leaflet:
1. What Microgynon 30 does
2. Make sure Microgynon 30 is OK
for you
3. Taking Microgynon 30
3.3  A missed pill
4. Possible side effects
5. How to store Microgynon 30
6. What is in Microgynon 30 and
who makes it

Microgynon® 30

Package leaflet: Information for the user

It’s important that you understand
the benefits and risks of taking the
Pill before you start taking it, or
when deciding whether to carry on
taking it. Although the Pill is
suitable for most healthy women it
isn’t suitable for everyone.
. Tell your doctor if you have
any of the illnesses or risk
factors mentioned in this
leaflet.
Before you start taking the Pill
R Your doctor will ask about you
and your family’s medical
problems, check your blood
pressure and exclude the
likelihood of you being
pregnant. You may also need
other checks, such as a breast
examination, but only if these
examinations are necessary for
you, or if you have any special
concerns.
While you’re on the Pill
R You will need regular checkups with your doctor or family
planning nurse, usually when
you need another prescription
of the Pill.
R You should go for regular
cervical smear tests.
R Check your breasts and
nipples every month for
changes – tell your doctor if you
can see or feel anything odd,
such as lumps or dimpling of
the skin.
R If you need a blood test tell
your doctor that you are taking
the Pill, because the Pill can
affect the results of some tests.
R If you’re going to have an
operation, make sure your
doctor knows about it. You may
need to stop taking the Pill
about 4–6 weeks before the
operation. This is to reduce the
risk of a blood clot (see section
2.1). Your doctor will tell you
when you can start taking the
Pill again.

2. Make sure
Microgynon 30
is OK for you
The Pill may slightly increase
your risk of having a blood clot
(called a thrombosis).
A clot in a leg vein – a deep vein
thrombosis (or DVT) – is not always
serious. However, if it moves up the
veins and blocks an artery in the
lungs, it can cause chest pain,
breathlessness, collapse or even
death. This is called a pulmonary
embolism and is very rare.
Your chances of having a blood
clot are only increased slightly
by taking the Pill.
R Of 100,000 women who are not
on the Pill and not pregnant,
about 5 will have a blood clot
in a year.
R Of 100,000 women taking a
Pill such as Microgynon 30,
about 15 will have a blood clot
in a year.
R Of 100,000 women who are
pregnant, around 60 will have
a blood clot in a year.
Very rarely, blood clots can also
form in the blood vessels of the
heart (causing a heart attack) or
the brain (causing a stroke). In
healthy young women the chance
of having a heart attack or stroke
is extremely small.
You are more at risk of having a
blood clot:
R as you get older
R if you smoke
R if you or any of your close
family have had blood clots
R if you are seriously overweight
R if you have a disorder of blood
fat (lipid) metabolism, or some
other very rare blood
disorders
R if you have high blood
pressure
R if you suffer from migraines
R if you have a heart valve
disorder or a particular type of
irregular heartbeat (atrial
fibrillation)
R if you have recently had a
baby
R if you have diabetes
R if you have certain rare medical
conditions such as systemic
lupus erythematosus, sickle
cell disease Crohn’s disease or
ulcerative colitis

2.1 The Pill and blood
clots

R if you’re off your feet for a
long time because of major
surgery, injury or illness.
. Tell your doctor if any of
these apply to you. Taking the
Pill may add to this risk so
Microgynon 30 may not be
suitable for you.
Signs of a blood clot include:
R a migraine for the first time, a
migraine that is worse than
normal, or unusually frequent
or severe headaches
R any sudden changes to your
eyesight (such as loss of vision
or blurred vision)
R any sudden changes to your
hearing, speech, sense of
smell, taste or touch
R pain or swelling in your leg
R stabbing pain when you
breathe
R coughing for no apparent
reason
R pain and tightness in the
chest
R sudden weakness or numbness
in one side or part of your body
R dizziness or fainting.
. See a doctor as soon as
possible. Do not take any
more Microgynon 30 until your
doctor says you can. Use
another method of
contraception, such as
condoms, in the meantime.
While high dose Pills reduce your
risk of cancer of the ovary and
womb if used in the long term, it is
not clear whether lower dose Pills
like Microgynon 30 also provide
the same protective effects.
However, it also seems that taking
the Pill slightly increases your risk
of cancer of the cervix – although
this may be due to having sex
without a condom, rather than the
Pill. All women should have regular
smear tests.
If you have breast cancer, or have
had it in the past, you should not
take the Pill. The Pill slightly
increases your risk of breast cancer.
This risk goes up the longer you’re
on the Pill, but returns to normal
within about 10 years of stopping
it. Because breast cancer is rare in
women under the age of 40, the
extra cases of breast cancer in
current and recent Pill users is
small.
For example:
R Of 10,000 women who have
never taken the Pill, about 16
will have breast cancer by the
time they are 35 years old.
R Of 10,000 women who take the
Pill for 5 years in their early
twenties, about 17–18 will
have breast cancer by the time
they are 35 years old.
R Of 10,000 women who have
never taken the Pill, about 100
will have breast cancer by the
time they are 45 years old.
R Of 10,000 women who take the
Pill for 5 years in their early
thirties, about 110 will have
breast cancer by the time they
are 45 years old.
Your risk of breast cancer is
higher:
R if you have a close relative
(mother, sister or grandmother)
who has had breast cancer
R if you are seriously overweight.
. See a doctor as soon as
possible if you notice any
changes in your breasts, such
as dimpling of the skin,
changes in the nipple or any
lumps you can see or feel.

2.2 The Pill and cancer

. Tell your doctor or family
planning nurse if you have any
medical problems or illnesses.
Do not take Microgynon 30 if any
of the following apply to you.
Taking Microgynon 30 would put
your health at risk.
R If you have or have ever had
breast cancer
R If you have ever had a problem
with your blood circulation. This
includes a blood clot
(thrombosis) in the legs (deep
vein thrombosis), lungs
(pulmonary embolism), heart
(heart attack), brain (stroke)
or any other parts of the body
R If you have any condition which
makes you more at risk of a
blood clot (thrombosis - see
section 2.1, The Pill and blood
clots)
R if you have very high or
uncontrolled blood pressure
R If you have any symptoms of a
blood clot, such as chest pain
(angina pectoris) or ‘ministroke’ (transient ischaemic
attack)
R If you have ever suffered from
migraine with visual
disturbances
R If you have ever had a severe
liver disease, and you have
been told by your doctor that
your liver function test results
are not yet back to normal
R If you have ever had liver
tumours
R If you have severe diabetes
affecting your blood vessels
R If you are allergic
(hypersensitive) to any of the
ingredients of Microgynon 30
. If you suffer from any of
these, or get them for the first
time while taking
Microgynon 30, contact your
doctor as soon as possible. Do
not take Microgynon 30.

2.3 Microgynon 30 should
not be taken by some
women

Taking the Pill has also been linked
to liver diseases, such as jaundice
and non-cancer liver tumours, but
this is rare. Very rarely, the Pill has
also been linked with some forms
of liver cancer in women who have
taken it for a long time.
. See a doctor as soon as
possible if you get severe pain
in your stomach, or yellow
skin or eyes (jaundice). You
may need to stop taking
Microgynon 30.
Some of the conditions listed below
can be made worse by taking the
Pill. Or they may mean it is less
suitable for you. You may still be
able to take Microgynon 30 but
you need to take special care and
have check-ups more often.
R If you have diabetes
R If you or your close family have
ever had problems with your
heart, or circulation such as
high blood pressure
R If you or your close family have
ever had problems with blood
clotting
R If you have the inherited
disease called porphyria
R If you are overweight (obese)
R If you have migraines
R If you have inflammation of
the pancreas (pancreatitis) or a
history or family history of high
levels of fat in your blood
(hypertriglyceridemia), as you
may be at risk of developing
pancreatitis
R If you have any illness that
worsened during pregnancy
or previous use of the Pill (see
section 4.2)
. Tell your doctor or family
planning nurse if any of these
apply to you. Also tell them if
you get any of these for the first
time while taking the Pill, or if
any get worse or come back,
because you may need to stop
taking Microgynon 30.

2.4 Microgynon 30 can
make some illnesses
worse

If you ever need to take another
medicine at the same time as being
on the Pill, always tell your doctor,
pharmacist or dentist that you’re
taking Microgynon 30. Also check
the leaflets that come with all your
medicines to see if they can be
taken with hormonal
contraceptives.
Some medicines can stop
Microgynon 30 from working
properly – for example:
R some medicines used to treat
epilepsy
R some medicines used to treat
HIV
R griseofulvin (an anti-fungal
medicine)
R certain antibiotics
R certain sedatives (called
barbiturates)
R St. John’s Wort (a herbal
remedy).
If you do need to take one of these
medicines, Microgynon 30 may not
be suitable for you or you may
need to use extra contraception for
a while. Your doctor, pharmacist or
dentist can tell you if this is
necessary and for how long.
Microgynon 30 can also affect
how well other medicines work.
Your doctor may need to adjust the
dose of your other medicine.
In addition, Microgynon 30 can
also interfere with the results of
some blood tests, so always tell
your doctor that you are taking
Microgynon 30 if you have a blood
test.

2.5 Taking other medicines

M

If you have been told by your
doctor that you have intolerance to
some sugars, contact your doctor
before using Microgynon 30.

2.9 Microgynon 30
contains lactose and
sucrose

Microgynon 30 has no known
effect on the ability to drive or use
machines.

2.8 Driving and using
machines

Do not use Microgynon 30 if you
are pregnant. If you think you
might be pregnant, do a pregnancy
test to confirm that you are before
you stop taking Microgynon 30.
If you are breast-feeding, your
doctor or family planning nurse
may advise you not to take
Microgynon 30. They will be able to
suggest alternative contraception.
Breast-feeding may not stop you
getting pregnant.

2.7 Pregnancy and breastfeeding

There are no special instructions
about food and drink while on
Microgynon 30.

2.6 Taking Microgynon 30
with food and drink

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Microgynon® 30

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To prevent pregnancy, always take
Microgynon 30 as described below.
Check with your doctor or family
planning nurse if you are not sure.
Take Microgynon 30 every day for
21 days
Microgynon 30 comes in strips of
21 pills, each marked with a day of
the week.
R Take your pill at the same time
every day
R Start by taking a pill marked
with the correct day of the
week.
R Follow the direction of the
arrows on the strip. Take one
pill each day, until you have
finished all 21 pills.
R Swallow each pill whole, with
water if necessary. Do not chew
the pill.
Then have seven pill-free days
After you have taken all 21 pills in
the strip, you have seven days
when you take no pills. So if you
take the last pill of one pack on a
Friday, you will take the first pill of
your next pack on the Saturday of
the following week.
Within a few days of taking the last
pill from the strip, you should have
a withdrawal bleed like a period.
This bleed may not have finished
when it is time to start your next
strip of pills.
You don’t need to use extra
contraception during these seven
pill-free days – as long as you have
taken your pills correctly and start
the next strip of pills on time.
Then start your next strip
Start taking your next strip of
Microgynon 30 after the seven pillfree days – even if you are still
bleeding. Always start the new strip
on time.
As long as you take Microgynon 30
correctly, you will always start
each new strip on the same day of
the week.

3. Taking Microgynon 30
3.1 How to take it

As a new user or starting the Pill
again after a break
It is best to take your first
Microgynon 30 pill on the first day
of your next period. By starting in
this way, you will have
contraceptive protection with your
first pill.
Changing to Microgynon 30 from
another contraceptive Pill
R If you are currently taking a
21-day Pill: start
Microgynon 30 the next day
after the end of the previous
strip. You will have
contraceptive protection with
your first pill. You will not have
a bleed until after your first
strip of Microgynon 30.
R If you are taking a 28-day Pill:
start taking Microgynon 30 the
day after your last active pill.
You will have contraceptive
protection with your first pill.
You will not have a bleed until
after your first strip of
Microgynon 30.
R Or, if you are
taking a
progestogen-only
Pill (POP or ‘mini
Pill’): start
Microgynon 30 on
the first day of
bleeding, even if
you have already
taken the
progestogen-only
Pill for that day.
You will have
contraceptive
cover straight
away.
Starting
Microgynon 30 after
a miscarriage or
abortion
If you have had a
miscarriage or an
abortion during the
first three months of
pregnancy, your
doctor may tell you to
start taking
Microgynon 30
straight away. This means that you
will have contraceptive protection
with your first pill.
If you have had a miscarriage or an
abortion after the third month of
pregnancy, ask your doctor for
advice. You may need to use extra
contraception, such as condoms,
for a short time.
Contraception after having a
baby
If you have just had a baby, your
doctor may advise you that
Microgynon 30 should be started
21 days after delivery provided that
you are fully mobile. You do not
have to wait for a period. You will
need to use another method of
contraception, such as a condom,
until you start Microgynon 30 and
for the first 7 days of pill taking.

3.2 Starting
Microgynon 30

3.4 A lost pill

taking two pills in one day.

usual 7-day break before starting the next strip.

If you have missed any of the
pills in a strip, and you do not
bleed in the first pill-free break,
you may be pregnant. Contact
your doctor or family planning
clinic, or do a pregnancy test
yourself.

first week of your strip (days 1 to 7) and you
had sex in that week, you could become
pregnant. Contact your doctor, family planning
nurse or pharmacist for advice as soon as
possible. They may recommend you use
emergency contraception.

R If you have missed one or more pills from the

If you start a new strip of pills
late, or make your ‘week off’
longer than seven days, you may
not be protected from pregnancy.
If you had sex in the last seven
days, ask your doctor, family
planning nurse or pharmacist for
advice. You may need to consider
emergency contraception. You
should also use extra
contraception, such as a condom,
for seven days.

first week of your strip (days 1 to 7) and you
had sex in that week, you could become
pregnant. Contact your doctor, family planning
nurse or pharmacist for advice as soon as
possible.

R If you have missed one or more pills from the

have finished the second strip, do a pregnancy
test before starting another strip.

R If you do not have a withdrawal bleed after you

strip the next day without a break.

R When you finish the strip of pills, start the next

7 days.

R Don’t forget to use extra precautions for the next

next 7 days.

R When you have finished the strip, leave the

Fewer than 7 pills left in the pack

the most recently missed pill.

R Check how many pills are left in the strip after

the next 7 days.

R Use extra precautions (condoms, for instance) for

R Take the most recently missed pill straight away.
R Leave any earlier missed pills in the strip.
R Take your further pills as usual. This may mean

More than 12 hours ago, or you
have missed more than one pill.

R Don’t forget to use extra precautions for the

7 or more pills left in the pack

not be reduced.

R Don’t worry, your contraceptive protection should

as usual. This may mean taking two pills in one day.

R Take the delayed pill straight away and further pills

Less than 12 hours ago

Occasionally, you may miss a
withdrawal bleed. This could mean
that you are pregnant, but that is
very unlikely if you have taken
your pills correctly. Start your next
strip at the normal time. If you
think that you might have put
yourself at risk of pregnancy (for
example, by missing pills or taking
other medicines), or if you miss a
second bleed, you should do a
pregnancy test. You can buy these
from the chemist or get a free test
at your family planning clinic or
doctors surgery. If you are
pregnant, stop taking
Microgynon 30 and see your
doctor.

3.6 Missed a period –
could you be
pregnant?

If you are sick (vomit) or have very
bad diarrhoea within 4 hours of
taking the Pill, your body may not
get its usual dose of hormones
from that pill. If you are better
within 12 hours of taking
Microgynon 30, follow the
instructions in section 3.4, A lost
pill, which describes how to take
another pill.
If you are still sick or have
diarrhoea more than 12 hours
after taking Microgynon 30, see
section 3.3, A missed pill.
. Talk to your doctor if your
stomach upset carries on or
gets worse. He or she may
recommend another form of
contraception.

3.5 If you are sick or have
diarrhoea

If you miss a pill, follow these instructions:
When were you due to take the missed pill?

If you lose a pill,
Either take the last pill of the strip
in place of the lost pill. Then take
all the other pills on their proper
days. Your cycle will be one day
shorter than normal, but your
contraceptive protection won’t be
affected. After your seven pill-free
days you will have a new starting
day, one day earlier than before.
Or if you do not want to change
the starting day of your cycle, take
a pill from a spare strip if you have
one. Then take all the other pills
from your current strip as usual.
You can then keep the opened
spare strip in case you lose any
more pills.

3.3 A missed pill

Signs of a blood clot:
R a migraine for the first time, a
migraine that is worse than
normal, or unusually frequent
or severe headaches
R any sudden changes to your
eyesight (such as loss of vision
or blurred vision)
R any sudden changes to your
hearing, speech, sense of
smell, taste or touch
R pain or swelling in your leg
R stabbing pain when you
breathe
R coughing for no apparent
reason
R pain and tightness in the
chest
R sudden weakness or
numbness in one side or part of
your body
R dizziness or fainting.

4.1 Serious side effects –
see a doctor straight
away

Like all medicines, Microgynon 30
can cause side effects, although
not everybody gets them.
. Tell your doctor, pharmacist
or family planning nurse if
you are worried about any side
effects which you think may be
due to Microgynon 30.

4. Possible side effects

If you are planning a baby, it’s best
to use another method of
contraception after stopping
Microgynon 30 until you have had
a proper period. Your doctor or
midwife relies on the date of your
last natural period to tell you
when your baby is due. However, it
will not cause you or the baby any
harm if you get pregnant straight
away.

3.8 When you want to get
pregnant

It is unlikely that taking more than
one pill will do you any harm, but
you may feel sick, vomit or have
some vaginal bleeding. Talk to
your doctor if you have any of
these symptoms.

3.7 Taking more than one
pill should not cause
harm

Uncommon side effects (between
10 and 100 in every 10,000 users
may be affected)
R being sick and stomach
upsets
R fluid retention
R migraine
R loss of interest in sex
R breast enlargement
R skin rash, which may be itchy

Common side effects (between
100 and 1000 in every 10,000
users may be affected)
R feeling sick
R stomach ache
R putting on weight
R headaches
R depressive moods or mood
swings
R sore or painful breasts

4.2 Less serious side
effects

Signs of a severe allergic
reaction or worsening of
hereditary angioedema:
R swelling of the hands, face, lips,
mouth, tongue or throat. A
swollen tongue/throat may
lead to difficulty swallowing
and breathing
R a red bumpy rash (hives) and
itching.
Signs of breast cancer include:
R dimpling of the skin
R changes in the nipple
R any lumps you can see or feel.
Signs of cancer of the cervix
include:
R vaginal discharge that smells
and/or contains blood
R unusual vaginal bleeding
R pelvic pain
R painful sex.
Signs of severe liver problems
include:
R severe pain in your upper
abdomen
R yellow skin or eyes (jaundice)
R inflammation of the liver
(hepatitis)
R your whole body starts itching.
. If you think you may have any
of these, see a doctor straight
away. You may need to stop
taking Microgynon 30.

Rare side effects (between 1 and
10 in every 10,000 users may be
affected)
R poor tolerance of contact
lenses
R losing weight
R increase of interest in sex
R vaginal or breast discharge
Other side effects reported
R Bleeding and spotting
between your periods can
sometimes occur for the first
few months but this usually
stops once your body has
adjusted to Microgynon 30. If it
continues, becomes heavy or
starts again, contact your
doctor (see section 4.3).
R Chloasma (yellow brown
patches on the skin). This may
happen even if you have been
using Microgynon 30 for a
number of months. Chloasma
may be reduced by avoiding too
much sunlight and/or UV lamps
R Occurrence or deterioration of
the movement disorder chorea
R Crohn’s disease or ulcerative
colitis
R Conditions that may worsen
during pregnancy or previous
use of the Pill:
P yellowing of the skin
(jaundice)
P persistent itching (pruritus)
P kidney or liver problems
P gall stones
P certain rare medical
conditions such as systemic
lupus erythematosus
P blister-like rash (herpes
gestationis) whilst pregnant
P an inherited form of
deafness (otosclerosis)
P a personal or family history
of a form of sickle cell
disease
P swelling of body parts
(hereditary angioedema)
P an inherited disease called
porphyria
P cancer of the cervix
. Tell your doctor, pharmacist
or family planning nurse if
you are worried about any side
effects which you think may be
due to Microgynon 30. Also tell
them if any existing conditions
get worse while you are taking
Microgynon 30.

Keep all medicines out of the reach
and sight of children.
Do not use Microgynon 30 after
the expiry date shown on the strip.
Do not throw away any medicines
down a drain or into a bin. Ask
your pharmacist what to do with
any medicines you do not want.
This will help to protect the
environment.

5. How to store
Microgynon 30

A few women have a little
unexpected bleeding or spotting
while they are taking
Microgynon 30, especially during
the first few months. Normally,
this bleeding is nothing to worry
about and will stop after a day or
two. Keep taking Microgynon 30 as
usual. The problem should
disappear after the first few strips.
You may also have unexpected
bleeding if you are not taking your
pills regularly, so try to take your
pill at the same time every day.
Also, unexpected bleeding can
sometimes be caused by other
medicines.
. Make an appointment to see
your doctor if you get
breakthrough bleeding or
spotting that:
P carries on for more than the
first few months
P starts after you’ve been
taking Microgynon 30 for a
while
P carries on even after you’ve
stopped taking
Microgynon 30.

4.3 Bleeding between
periods should not
last long

81501726

What is in Microgynon 30
Each box of Microgynon 30
contains three strips of 21 beige
tablets.
Each beige sugar-coated tablet
contains: 150 micrograms of the
progestogen levonorgestrel, and
30 micrograms of the oestrogen
ethinylestradiol.
Microgynon 30 also contains the
inactive ingredients:
lactose, maize starch, povidone,
magnesium stearate (E572),
sucrose, macrogol 6000, calcium
carbonate (E170), talc, montan
glycol wax, titanium dioxide
(E171), gylcerin (E422), ferric oxide
pigment yellow (E172)
The company that holds the
product licence for
Microgynon 30 is:
Bayer plc, Bayer House, Strawberry
Hill, Newbury, Berkshire RG14 1JA.
Microgynon 30 is made by:
Bayer Pharma AG, Berlin, Germany
or Bayer Weimar GmbH & Co KG,
Weimar, Germany
or Delpharm Lille SAS, Lys-LezLannoy, France.
This leaflet was last updated in
December 2012

6. What is in
Microgynon 30
and who makes it

Expand view ⇕

Source: Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency

Disclaimer: Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided here is accurate, up-to-date and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. This information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States. The absence of a warning for a given drug or combination thereof in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. If you have questions about the substances you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

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