ELLESTE SOLO 2MG

Active substance: ESTRADIOL HEMIHYDRATE

View full screen / Print PDF » Download PDF ⇩

Transcript
SUMMARY OF PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS

1

NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT
Elleste Solo 2 mg

2

QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION
Each tablet contains 2 mg estradiol (as estradiol hemihydrate)
For excipients, see 6.1.

3

PHARMACEUTICAL FORM
Film coated tablets.

4

CLINICAL PARTICULARS

4.1

Therapeutic indications
Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) for estrogen deficiency symptoms in
post- and peri-menopausal women.
Prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women at high risk of future
fractures who are intolerant of, or contraindicated for, other medicinal
products approved for the prevention of osteoporosis. (See also section 4.4).
The experience of treating women older than 65 years is limited.

4.2

Posology and method of administration

One tablet daily to be taken orally. Elleste Solo 2 mg may be taken
continuously in hysterectomised women. In women with a uterus, a
progestogen should be added for 12 - 14 days each cycle to oppose the
production of an estrogen-stimulated hyperplasia of the endometrium. Unless
there is a previous diagnosis of endometriosis, it is not recommended to add a
progestogen in hysterectomised women.
Therapy may start at any time in women with established amenorrhoea or who
are experiencing long intervals between spontaneous menses. In patients who
are menstruating, it is advised that therapy starts on the first day of bleeding.
Patients changing from a cyclical or continuous sequential preparation should
complete the cycle and may then change to Elleste Solo 2 mg without a break
in therapy. Patients changing from a continuous combined preparation may
start therapy at any time if amenorrhoea is established, or otherwise start on
the first day of bleeding.
Elderly
There are no special dosage requirements for elderly patients.
Children
Not to be used in children.
Elleste Solo Tablets are available in two strengths: Elleste Solo 1 mg
(containing 1 mg estradiol) and Elleste Solo 2 mg (containing 2 mg estradiol).
For initiation and continuation of treatment of post- and peri-menopausal
symptoms, the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration (see also Section
4.4) should be used.. Elleste Solo 1 mg is not indicated for prophylaxis of
osteoporosis.
Missed or Extra Tablet: If a tablet is missed it should be taken within 12 hours
of when normally taken; otherwise the tablet should be discarded, and the
usual tablet should be taken the following day. A missed dose may lead to
break-through bleeding or spotting in non-hysterectomised women. If one
extra tablet is taken inadvertently, the usual tablet should be taken the
following day.

4.3

Contraindications
Known, past or suspected breast cancer;
Known or suspected estrogen-dependent malignant tumours (e.g. endometrial
cancer);
Undiagnosed genital bleeding;
Untreated endometrial hyperplasia;

Previous idiopathic or current venous thromboembolism (deep venous thrombosis,
pulmonary embolism);
Active or recent arterial thromboembolic disease (e.g. angina, myocardial infarction);
Acute liver disease, or a history of liver disease as long as liver function tests have
failed to return to normal;
Known hypersensitivity to the active substances or to any of the excipients;
Porphyria.

4.4

Special warnings and precautions for use
For the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms, HRT should only be initiated for
symptoms that adversely affect quality of life. In all cases, a careful appraisal of the
risks and benefits should be undertaken at least annually and HRT should only be
continued as long as the benefit outweighs the risk.
Medical Examination/Follow Up
Before initiating or reinstituting HRT, a complete personal and family medical history
should be taken. Physical (including pelvic and breast) examination should be guided
by this and by the contraindications and warnings for use. During treatment, periodic
check-ups are recommended of a frequency and nature adapted to the individual
woman. Women should be advised what changes in their breasts should be reported
to their doctor or nurse (see “Breast cancer” below). Investigations, including
mammography, should be carried out in accordance with currently accepted screening
practices, modified to the clinical needs of the individual.
Conditions Which Need Supervision
If any of the following conditions are present, have occurred previously, and/or have
been aggravated during pregnancy or previous hormone treatment, the patient should
be closely supervised. It should be taken into account that these conditions may recur
or be aggravated during treatment with Elleste Solo 2 mg, in particular:
-

Leiomyoma (uterine fibroids) or endometriosis

-

A history of, or risk factors for, thromboembolic disorders (see below)

-

Risk factors for estrogen dependent tumours, e.g. 1st degree heredity for
breast cancer

-

Hypertension

-

Liver disorders (e.g. liver adenoma)

-

Diabetes mellitus with or without vascular involvement

-

Cholelithiasis

-

Migraine or (severe) headache

-

Systemic lupus erythematosus

-

A history of endometrial hyperplasia (see below)

-

Epilepsy

-

Asthma

-

Otosclerosis

Reasons for Immediate Withdrawal of Therapy
Therapy should be discontinued if a contraindication is discovered and in the
following situations:
-

Jaundice or deterioration in liver function

-

Significant increase in blood pressure

-

New onset of migraine-type headache

-

Pregnancy

Endometrial Hyperplasia
The risk of endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma is increased when estrogens are
administered alone for prolonged periods (see Section 4.8). The addition of a
progestogen for at least 12 days per cycle in non-hysterectomised women greatly
reduces this risk.
Break-through bleeding and spotting may occur during the first months of treatment.
If break-through bleeding or spotting appears after some time on therapy, or
continues after treatment has been discontinued, the reason should be investigated,
which may include endometrial biopsy to exclude endometrial malignancy.
Unopposed estrogen stimulation may lead to premalignant or malignant
transformation in the residual foci of endometriosis. Therefore, the addition of
progestogens to estrogen replacement therapy is should be considered in women who
have undergone hysterectomy because of endometriosis, if they are known to have
residual endometriosis.
Breast Cancer
A randomised placebo-controlled trial, the Women’s Health Initiative Study (WHI),
and epidemiological studies, including the Million Women Study (MWS), have
reported an increased risk of breast cancer in women taking estrogens, estrogenprogestogen combinations or tibolone for HRT for several years (see Section 4.8).
For all HRT, an excess risk becomes apparent within a few years of use and increases
with duration of intake but returns to baseline within a few (at most five) years after
stopping treatment.
In the MWS, the relative risk of breast cancer with conjugated equine estrogens
(CEE) or estradiol (E2) was greater when a progestogen was added, either
sequentially or continuously, and regardless of type of progestogen. There was no
evidence of a difference in risk between the different routes of administration.
In the WHI study, the continuous combined conjugated equine estrogen and
medroxyprogesterone acetate (CEE + MPA) product used was associated with breast
cancers that were slightly larger in size and more frequently had local lymph node
metastases compared to placebo.
HRT, especially estrogen-progestogen combined treatment, increases the density of
mammographic images which may adversely affect the radiological detection of
breast cancer.
Venous Thromboembolism
HRT is associated with a higher relative risk of developing venous thromboembolism
(VTE), i.e. deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. One randomised
controlled trial and epidemiological studies found a two- to threefold higher risk for
users compared with non-users. For non-users, it is estimated that the number of
cases of VTE that will occur over a 5 year period is about 3 per 1000 women aged 5059 years and 8 per 1000 women aged 60-69 years. It is estimated that in healthy

women who use HRT for 5 years, the number of additional cases of VTE over a 5
year period will be between 2 and 6 (best estimate = 4) per 1000 women aged 50-59
years and between 5 and 15 (best estimate = 9) per 1000 women aged 60-69 years.
The occurrence of such an event is more likely in the first year of HRT than later.
Generally recognised risk factors for VTE include a personal history or family
history, severe obesity (BMI>30 kg/m2) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
There is no consensus about the possible role of varicose veins in VTE.
Patients with a history of VTE or known thrombophilic states have an increased risk
of VTE. HRT may add to this risk. Personal or strong family history of
thromboembolism or recurrent spontaneous abortion should be investigated in order
to exclude a thrombophilic predisposition. Until a thorough evaluation of
thrombophilic factors has been made or anticoagulant treatment initiated, use of HRT
in such patients should be viewed as contraindicated. Those women already on
anticoagulant treatment require careful consideration of the benefit-risk of use of
HRT.
The risk of VTE may be temporarily increased with prolonged immobilisation, major
trauma or major surgery. As in all postoperative patients, scrupulous attention should
be given to prophylactic measures to prevent VTE following surgery. Where
prolonged immobilisation is liable to follow elective surgery, particularly abdominal
or orthopaedic surgery to the lower limbs, consideration should be given to
temporarily stopping HRT 4 to 6 weeks earlier, if possible. Treatment should not be
restarted until the woman is completely mobilised.
If VTE develops after initiating therapy, the drug should be discontinued. Patients
should be told to contact their doctors immediately when they are aware of a potential
thromboembolic symptom (eg, painful swelling of a leg, sudden pain in the chest,
dyspnea).
Coronary Artery Disease
There is no evidence from randomised controlled trials of cardiovasular benefit with
continuous combined conjugated estrogens and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA).
Two large clinical trials (WHI and HERS i.e. Heart and Estrogen/progestin
Replacement Study) showed a possible increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity in
the first year of use and no overall benefit. For other HRT products there are only
limited data from randomised controlled trials examining effects in cardiovascular
morbidity or mortality. Therefore, it is uncertain whether these findings also extend
to other HRT products.
Stroke
One large randomised clinical trial (WHI-trial) found, as a secondary outcome, an
increased risk of ischaemic stroke in healthy women during treatment with
continuous combined conjugated estrogens and MPA. For women who do not use
HRT, it is estimated that the number of cases of stroke that will occur over a 5 year
period is about 3 per 1000 women aged 50-59 years and 11 per 1000 women aged 6069 years. It is estimated that for women who use conjugated estrogens and MPA for
5 years, the number of additional cases will be between 0 and 3 (best estimate = 1)
per 1000 users aged 50-59 years and between 1 and 9 (best estimate = 4) per 1000
users aged 60-69 years. It is unknown whether the increased risk also extends to
other HRT products.
Ovarian Cancer
Long-term (at least 5 to 10 years) use of estrogen-only HRT products in
hysterectomised women has been associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer

in some epidemiological studies. It is uncertain whether long-term use of combined
HRT confers a different risk than estrogen-only products.
Other Conditions
Estrogens may cause fluid retention and therefore patients with cardiac or renal
dysfunction should be carefully observed. Patients with terminal renal insufficiency
should be closely observed, since it is expected that the level of circulating active
ingredients in Elleste Solo 2 mg is increased.
Women with pre-existing hypertriglyceridaemia should be followed closely during
estrogen replacement or hormone replacement therapy, since rare cases of large
increases of plasma triglycerides leading to pancreatitis have been reported with
estrogen therapy in this condition.
Estrogens increase thyroid binding globulin (TBG), leading to increased circulating
total thyroid hormone, as measured by protein-bound iodine (PBI), T4 levels (by
column or by radio-immunoassay) or T3 levels (by radio-immunoassay). T3 resin
uptake is decreased, reflecting the elevated TBG. Free T4 and free T3 concentrations
are unaltered. Other binding proteins may be elevated in serum i.e. corticoid binding
globulin (CBG), sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) leading to increased
circulating corticosteroids and sex steroids, respectively. Free or biological active
hormone concentrations are unchanged. Other plasma proteins may be increased
(angiotensinogen/renin substrate, alpha-1-antitrypsin, ceruloplasmin).
There is no conclusive evidence for improvement of cognitive function. There is
some evidence from the WHI trial of increased risk of probable dementia in women
who start using continuous combined CEE and MPA after the age of 65. It is
unknown whether the findings apply to younger post-menopausal women or other
HRT products.
There is an increased risk of gall bladder disease in women receiving postmenopausal estrogens.
In rare cases benign, and in even rarer cases malignant liver tumours leading in
isolated cases to life-threatening intra-abdominal haemorrhage have been observed
after the use of hormonal substances such as those contained in Elleste Solo 2 mg. If
severe upper abdominal complaints, enlarged liver or signs of intra-abdominal
haemorrhage occur, a liver tumour should be considered in the differential diagnosis.
Elleste Solo 2mg Tablets contain sunset yellow colouring (E110) which can cause
allergic-type reactions, including asthma. This allergy is more common in people who
are allergic to aspirin.
Patients with rare hereditary problems of Galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase
deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicine.

4.5

Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
The metabolism of estrogens may be increased by concomitant use of
substances known to induce drug-metabolising enzymes, specifically

cytochrome P450 enzymes, such as anticonvulsants (e.g. phenobarbital,
phenytoin, carbamazepine) and anti-infectives (e.g. rifampicin, rifabutin,
nevirapine, efavirenz).
Ritonavir and nelfinavir, although known as strong inhibitors, by contrast
exhibit inducing properties when used concomitantly with steroid hormones.
Herbal preparations containing St John's Wort (Hypericum Perforatum) may
induce the metabolism of estrogens.
Clinically, an increased metabolism of estrogens may lead to decreased effect
and changes in the uterine bleeding profile.
The requirement for oral anti-diabetics or insulin can change as a result of the
effect on glucose tolerance. Some laboratory tests can be influenced by
estrogens, such as tests for thyroid function (see section 4.4) or glucose
tolerance.

4.6

Pregnancy and lactation
Pregnancy:
Elleste Solo 2 mg is not indicated during pregnancy. If pregnancy occurs
during medication with Elleste Solo 2 mg treatment should be withdrawn
immediately. The results of most epidemiological studies to date relevant to
inadvertent foetal exposure to estrogens indicate no teratogenic or foetotoxic
effects.
Lactation:
Elleste Solo 2 mg is not indicated during lactation.

4.7

Effects on ability to drive and use machines
No adverse effects on the ability to drive or operate machines have been
recorded.

4.8

Undesirable effects
Undesirable effects observed with estrogens are detailed in the following table.
The effects are grouped according to system organ class.
Organ group

Common (>1/100)

Uncommon
(>1/1,000,

Rare
(>1/10,000,

Gastrointestinal

Nausea,
pain

Urogenital

Cardiovascular

Miscellaneous

<1/1,000)

Alopecia,
hirsutism,
itching.

Skin

CNS

<1/100)
abdominal Dyspepsia,
vomiting,
flatulence,
gallbladder
disease,
gallstones

rash,

Headache

Dizziness,
migraine
Uterine
bleeding, Vaginal
increase in size of candidiasis
uterine fibroids
Increase in blood Venous
pressure
thromboembolism*
Thrombophlebitis
Weight
Leg cramps
increase/decrease,
oedema, breast
tenderness, breast
enlargement, change
in mood including
anxiety and depressive
mood, change in
libido

see sections 4.3 Contraindications and 4.4 Special warnings and precautions
for use

Breast cancer
According to evidence from a large number of epidemiological studies and
one randomised placebo-controlled trial, the Women’s Health Initiative
(WHI), the overall risk of breast cancer increases with increasing duration of
HRT use in current or recent HRT users.
For estrogen-only HRT, estimates of relative risk (RR) from a reanalysis of
original data from 51 epidemiological studies (in which >80% of HRT use was
estrogen-only HRT) and from the epidemiological Million Women Study
(MWS) are similar at 1.35 (95%CI 1.21 – 1.49) and 1.30 (95%CI 1.21 – 1.40),
respectively.
For estrogen plus progestogen combined HRT, several epidemiological
studies have reported an overall higher risk for breast cancer than with
estrogens alone.

The MWS reported that, compared to never users, the use of various types of
estrogen-progestogen combined HRT was associated with a higher risk of
breast cancer (RR = 2.00, 95%CI: 1.88 – 2.12) than use of estrogens alone
(RR = 1.30, 95%CI: 1.21 – 1.40) or use of tibolone (RR=1.45; 95%CI 1.251.68).
The WHI trial reported a risk estimate of 1.24 (95%CI 1.01 – 1.54) after 5.6
years of use of estrogen-progestogen combined HRT (CEE + MPA) in all
users compared with placebo.
The absolute risks calculated from the MWS and the WHI trials are presented
below:
The MWS has estimated, from the known average incidence of breast cancer
in developed countries, that:
For women not using HRT, about 32 in every 1000 are expected to have
breast cancer diagnosed between the ages of 50 and 64 years.
For 1000 current or recent users of HRT, the number of additional cases
during the corresponding period will be
For users of estrogen-only replacement therapy
• between 0 and 3 (best estimate = 1.5) for 5 years’ use
• between 3 and 7 (best estimate = 5) for 10 years’ use.
For users of estrogen plus progestogen combined HRT,
• between 5 and 7 (best estimate = 6) for 5 years’ use
• between 18 and 20 (best estimate = 19) for 10 years’ use.
The WHI trial estimated that after 5.6 years of follow-up of women between
the ages of 50 and 79 years, an additional 8 cases of invasive breast cancer
would be due to estrogen-progestogen combined HRT (CEE + MPA) per
10,000 women years. According to calculations from the trial data, it is
estimated that:
For 1000 women in the placebo group,
• about 16 cases of invasive breast cancer would be diagnosed in 5 years.
For 1000 women who used estrogen + progestogen combined HRT (CEE
+ MPA), the number of additional cases would be
• between 0 and 9 (best estimate = 4) for 5 years’ use.
The number of additional cases of breast cancer in women who use HRT is
broadly similar for women who start HRT irrespective of age at start of use
(between the ages of 45-65) (see section 4.4).
Endometrial cancer
In women with an intact uterus, the risk of endometrial hyperplasia and
endometrial cancer increases with increasing duration of use of unopposed
estrogens. According to data from epidemiological studies, the best estimate of
the risk is that for women not using HRT, about 5 in every 1000 are expected
to have endometrial cancer diagnosed between the ages of 50 and 65.
Depending on the duration of treatment and estrogen dose, the reported
increase in endometrial cancer risk among unopposed estrogen users varies

from 2-to 12-fold greater compared with non-users. Adding a progestogen to
estrogen-only therapy greatly reduces this increased risk.
Very rare cases of myocardial infarction, stroke, chloasma, erythema
multiforme, erythema nodosum, vascular purpura, haemorrhagic eruption and
probable dementia (see section 4.4) have been reported in women using HRT.

4.9

Overdose
Overdosage may be manifested by nausea and vomiting. If overdosage is
discovered within two or three hours and is so large that treatment seems
desirable, gastric lavage can be considered. There are no specific antidotes for
overdosage, and further treatment should be symptomatic.

5

PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

5.1

Pharmacodynamic properties
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Natural and semisynthetic estrogens, plain
ATC Code: G03CA03
The active ingredient, synthetic 17 -estradiol, is chemically and biologically identical
to endogenous human estradiol. It substitutes for the loss of estrogen production in
menopausal women, and alleviates menopausal symptoms.

β

Estrogens prevent bone loss following menopause or ovariectomy. Estrogen
deficiency at menopause is associated with an increasing bone turnover and decline in
bone mass. The effect of estrogens on the bone mineral density is dose-dependent.
Protection appears to be effective for as long as treatment is continued. After
discontinuation of HRT, bone mass is lost at a rate similar to that in untreated women.
Evidence from the WHI trial and meta-analysed trials shows that current use of HRT,
alone or in combination with a progestogen – given to predominantly healthy women
– reduces the risk of hip, vertebral, and other osteoporotic fractures. HRT may also
prevent fractures in women with low bone density and/or established osteoporosis,
but the evidence for that is limited.

5.2

Pharmacokinetic properties
Pharmacokinetic parameters for Elleste Solo 2 mg, are provided in the following
table. The data were obtained from an open label, single dose, two way crossover
pharmacokinetic study (n=16). Pharmacokinetic data were collected over 48 hours.

Plasma Unconjugated
Estradiol

Plasma Unconjugated Estrone
(mean)

(mean)
AUC0-48h

950 pg.h/ml

2700 pg.h/ml

Cmax

45 pg/ml

140 pg/ml

Tmax

5.0 h

4.0 h

Estradiol
Readily and fully absorbed from the GI tract when given orally, peak levels are
generally observed 3-6 hours after ingestion, but by 24 hours concentrations have
returned to baseline.
Estradiol is converted to estrone and estriol primarily in the liver. These are excreted
into the bile and undergo enterohepatic recirculation and further degradation before
being excreted in the urine (90-95%) as biologically inactive glucuronide and
sulphate conjugates or in the faeces (5-10%), mostly unconjugated.

5.3

Preclinical safety data
Estradiol has been shown to induce adverse effects in preclinical reproductive toxicity
studies. Chiefly estradiol showed embryotoxic effects and induced anomalies in
urogenital tract development e.g. feminisation of male foetuses in high doses.

6

PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS

6.1

List of excipients

Tablet core:
Lactose monohydrate, maize starch, povidone 25, talc (purified), magnesium stearate
Film-coating material:
Hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (E464), titanium dioxide (E171), macrogol 400,
sunset yellow (E110).

6.2

Incompatibilities
Not applicable

6.3

Shelf life
3 years

6.4

Special precautions for storage
Do not store above 25ºC. Store in the original package.

6.5

Nature and contents of container
Aluminium foil and UPVC blister packed in a cardboard carton.
Pack sizes: 20*, 28*, 60*, 84 or 100* tablets.
Packs marked with a * are not marketed in the UK.

6.6

Special precautions for disposal
There are no special instructions for handling.

7. MARKETING AUTHORISATION HOLDER
Meda Pharmaceuticals Ltd
Skyway House
Parsonage Road

Takeley
Bishop’s Stortford
CM22 6PU

8

MARKETING AUTHORISATION NUMBER(S)
PL 15142/0062

9

DATE OF FIRST AUTHORISATION/RENEWAL OF THE
AUTHORISATION
27/08/2007

10

DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT
04/07/2013

Expand view ⇕

Source: Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency

Disclaimer: Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided here is accurate, up-to-date and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. This information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States. The absence of a warning for a given drug or combination thereof in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. If you have questions about the substances you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Hide
(web3)