Procardia XL Side Effects

Generic Name: nifedipine

Note: This page contains side effects data for the generic drug nifedipine. It is possible that some of the dosage forms included below may not apply to the brand name Procardia XL.

It is possible that some side effects of Procardia XL may not have been reported. These can be reported to the FDA here. Always consult a healthcare professional for medical advice.

For the Consumer

Applies to nifedipine: oral capsule, oral capsule liquid filled, oral tablet, oral tablet extended release

As well as its needed effects, nifedipine (the active ingredient contained in Procardia XL) may cause unwanted side effects that require medical attention.

If any of the following side effects occur while taking nifedipine, check with your doctor immediately:

More common
  • Bloating or swelling of the face, arms, hands, lower legs, or feet
  • cough
  • difficult or labored breathing
  • dizziness or lightheadedness
  • fast, irregular, pounding, or racing heartbeat or pulse
  • feeling of warmth
  • headache
  • muscle cramps
  • rapid weight gain
  • shakiness in the legs, arms, hands, or feet
  • shortness of breath
  • tightness in the chest
  • tingling of the hands or feet
  • trembling or shaking of the hands or feet
  • unusual weight gain or loss
  • weakness
  • wheezing
Less common
  • Blue lips and fingernails
  • chest congestion
  • chest pain
  • chills
  • coughing that sometimes produces a pink frothy sputum
  • decreased urine output
  • difficult, fast, or noisy breathing, sometimes with wheezing
  • dilated neck veins
  • extreme fatigue
  • fever
  • increased sweating
  • irregular breathing
  • nausea
  • pain or discomfort in the arms, jaw, back, or neck
  • pale skin
  • severe unusual tiredness or weakness
  • sweating
  • troubled breathing
  • vomiting
Rare
  • Black, tarry stools
  • bleeding gums
  • blood in the eyes
  • blood in the urine or stools
  • bloody stools
  • bluish color
  • blurred vision
  • body aches or pain
  • changes in skin color
  • cold sweats
  • dark urine
  • difficulty with swallowing
  • dizziness, faintness, or lightheadedness when getting up suddenly from a lying or sitting position
  • dry mouth
  • dryness or soreness of throat
  • ear congestion or pain
  • extra heartbeats
  • eye pain
  • feeling unusually cold
  • general tiredness and weakness
  • headache, severe and throbbing
  • hoarseness
  • increased urge to urinate during the night
  • irritation in the mouth
  • itching
  • large, hive-like swelling on face, eyelids, lips, tongue, throat, hands, legs, feet, or sex organs
  • light-colored stools
  • nasal congestion
  • neck pain
  • nervousness
  • no blood pressure or pulse
  • noisy breathing
  • pain
  • pain in the groin or genitals
  • pain or burning while urinating
  • painful or difficult urination
  • pinpoint red spots on the skin
  • puffiness or swelling of the eyelids or around the eyes, face, lips, or tongue
  • redness and swelling of the gums
  • redness in the whites of the eyes
  • runny nose
  • shakiness and unsteady walk
  • sharp back pain just below ribs
  • shivering
  • skin rash
  • small clicking, bubbling, or rattling sounds in the lung when listening with a stethoscope
  • sneezing
  • sore throat
  • sores, ulcers, or white spots on the lips or in the mouth
  • stopping of heart
  • swelling around the eyes
  • swollen glands
  • tenderness
  • tender, swollen glands in the neck
  • troubled breathing with exertion
  • unconsciousness
  • unsteadiness, trembling, or other problems with muscle control or coordination
  • unusual bleeding or bruising
  • upper right abdominal or stomach pain
  • vision changes
  • voice changes
  • vomiting of blood or material that looks like coffee grounds
  • waking to urinate at night
  • yellow eyes and skin

Some nifedipine side effects may not need any medical attention. As your body gets used to the medicine these side effects may disappear. Your health care professional may be able to help you prevent or reduce these side effects, but do check with them if any of the following side effects continue, or if you are concerned about them:

More common
  • Belching
  • feeling of indigestion
  • mood changes
  • pain in the chest below the breastbone
  • redness of the face, neck, arms, and occasionally, upper chest
Less common
  • Abnormal ejaculation
  • bloody nose
  • burning, crawling, itching, numbness, prickling, "pins and needles", or tingling feelings
  • decreased interest in sexual intercourse
  • decreased sexual performance or desire
  • diarrhea
  • difficulty having a bowel movement (stool)
  • excess air or gas in stomach or intestines
  • feeling of constant movement of self or surroundings
  • full feeling
  • general feeling of discomfort or illness
  • inability to have or keep an erection
  • increased need to urinate
  • joint stiffness
  • leg cramps or pain
  • loss in sexual ability, desire, drive, or performance
  • nervousness
  • passing gas
  • passing urine more often
  • sneezing
  • stuffy nose
  • trouble sleeping
Rare
  • Acid or sour stomach
  • ankle, knee, or great toe joint pain
  • cracks in the skin
  • difficulty with moving
  • discouragement
  • excessive muscle tone
  • fear or nervousness
  • feeling sad or empty
  • hair loss or thinning of the hair
  • heartburn
  • increased sensitivity of the skin to sunlight
  • irritability
  • itching, pain, redness, swelling, tenderness, or warmth on the skin
  • lack of appetite
  • lack or loss of strength
  • loss of heat from the body
  • loss of interest or pleasure
  • loss of strength or energy
  • loss in sexual ability, desire, drive, or performance
  • lower back or side pain
  • muscle pain or weakness
  • muscle stiffness
  • muscle tension or tightness
  • pain or burning in the throat
  • red, swollen skin
  • redness or other discoloration of the skin
  • scaly skin
  • severe sunburn
  • sleepiness or unusual drowsiness
  • sleeplessness
  • stomach discomfort, upset, or pain
  • swelling of the breasts or breast soreness in both females and males
  • tiredness
  • trouble concentrating
  • unable to sleep

For Healthcare Professionals

Applies to nifedipine: compounding powder, oral capsule, oral tablet extended release

General

Recent data suggest that the use of short-acting nifedipine (the active ingredient contained in Procardia XL) in moderate to high doses in patients with coronary artery disease (particularly in the elderly) has been associated with an increase in total mortality. In addition, in general, approximately 20% of patients have experienced side effects, mostly due to the vasodilatory properties of the drug (headache, flushing, dizziness). These effects have usually been transient and mild in severity, and have been minimized by dose reduction or addition of a beta-blocker (if indicated).[Ref]

Nervous system

A 59-year-old man with hypertension (BP of 160/110) developed a severe headache, right-sided paresthesia, and complete bilateral loss of vision 30 minutes after receiving his first dose of nifedipine (the active ingredient contained in Procardia XL) 20 mg orally. A CT scan confirmed the diagnosis of bilateral occipital lobe infarction resulting in cortical blindness with macular sparing. The authors of this case report believe that nifedipine may have caused a local cerebral vascular steal phenomenon or a global reduction in cerebral blood flow, and have located approximately four similar reports.[Ref]

Nervous system side effects are the most common and have included headache (7% to 35%), weakness (10% to 12%), dizziness/lightheadedness/giddiness (3% to 27%), and tremor (1% or less to 8%). Paresthesia, insomnia, somnolence, and vertigo (3% or less); sleep disturbances and shakiness (2% or less); ataxia, decreased libido, hypertonia, hypesthesia, and migraine (1% or less); and dystonia, dysosmia, and dysgeusia have been reported. Rare cases of stroke associated with nifedipine-induced hypotension have been reported.[Ref]

Cardiovascular

Cardiovascular side effects can be significant and have included peripheral edema (7% to 29%), hypotension (less than 1% to 5%), palpitations (less than 1% to 7%), myocardial infarction (4%), congestive heart failure (2%), and noncardiogenic edema (0.6% to 8%). Arrhythmia, increased angina, tachycardia, and syncope (1% or less); substernal chest pain, atrial fibrillation, bradycardia, cardiac arrest, extrasystole, phlebitis, postural hypotension, and cutaneous angiectases (less than 1%); erythromelalgia (0.5%); ventricular arrhythmias and conduction disturbances (less than 0.5%); and atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias have been reported. Patients with hypovolemia and/or concomitant antihypertensive therapy are at increased risk of hypotension associated with nifedipine (the active ingredient contained in Procardia XL) Some patients with exertional angina pectoris have reported increased chest pain after taking nifedipine. This may, however, reflect progressive disease rather than drug effect. Ventricular fibrillation has rarely been reported.[Ref]

Nifedipine-induced hypotension may result in retinal, coronary, or cerebral ischemia in some patients, resulting in visual field defects, angina, or stroke. A single case report of profound hypotension and death associated with nifedipine in a 17-year-old woman with primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) has been reported. The patient had extraordinarily high right atrial pressures and depressed cardiac output, indicating caution when one is testing the efficacy of calcium channel blockers in patients with PPH.

A 34-year-old woman experienced torsades de pointes leading to ventricular fibrillation after a 20 mg sublingual dose of nifedipine was administered to treat a hypertensive emergency.

Atrioventricular block is an unusual side effect of nifedipine therapy.

Rare cases of nifedipine-associated noncardiac pulmonary edema in patients with pulmonary hypertension and left ventricular outflow obstruction syndromes, such as aortic stenosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have been reported.

Although relatively minor, the negative inotropic side effect of nifedipine may be important in patients with a history of congestive heart failure.[Ref]

Gastrointestinal

Gastrointestinal (GI) side effects are common and have included nausea (2% to 11%); heartburn (11%); constipation (3.3% or less); abdominal pain, diarrhea, dry mouth, dyspepsia, and flatulence (3% or less); abdominal cramps (2% or less); eructation, gastroesophageal reflux, gingival hyperplasia, melena, taste perversion, and vomiting (1% or less); and dysphagia, esophagitis, GI disorder, GI hemorrhage, GI irritation, gum disorder, and gum hemorrhage (less than 1%). Rarely, bezoars have been reported in patients taking extended release nifedipine (the active ingredient contained in Procardia XL) as Procardia XL(R). Gastrointestinal obstruction resulting in hospitalization and surgery (including the need for bezoar removal) has been reported with Procardia XL(R), even in patients with no known gastrointestinal disease. Tablet adherence to the GI wall with ulceration has been reported with Procardia XL(R); some cases required hospitalization and intervention.[Ref]

Hepatic

Hepatic side effects have included increased GGT (less than 1%); transient elevations of liver function tests and rare cases of hepatitis (approximately 0.5%); allergic hepatitis (less than 0.5%); and jaundice.[Ref]

Nifedipine-associated hepatitis is dose-dependent, idiosyncratic, and thought to be due to hypersensitivity because it is often associated with fever, rash, eosinophilia, and arthritis. One case of alcoholic-like liver lesions, consisting of steatosis and Mallory bodies, has been associated with the use of nifedipine.

Some studies have shown that nifedipine may increase hepatic portal venous hypertension, which may be important in patients with severe liver disease. Frequent monitoring of liver function tests during nifedipine therapy is recommended in patients with underlying liver disease.[Ref]

Renal

Renal side effects have included kidney calculus (less than 1%) and new or worsened renal insufficiency (less than 0.5%). Patients who are at higher risk include the elderly and patients with preexisting renal or arteriosclerotic vascular disease. Use of nifedipine (the active ingredient contained in Procardia XL) has also been associated with improved glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow in hypertensive patients with moderate renal dysfunction, regardless of its antihypertensive effect.[Ref]

Rare cases of immune-complex nephritis and nephrotic syndrome associated with nifedipine therapy have been reported. A case of acute, reversible renal failure attributable to nifedipine administration in a patient with congestive heart failure has been reported.[Ref]

Hypersensitivity

Hypersensitivity side effects have included allergic reaction (less than 1%), angioedema (mostly oropharyngeal edema with difficulty breathing in a few patients; less than 0.5%), and anaphylactic reaction. Cases of urticarial eruptions and erythema multiforme, often associated with other findings of hypersensitivity, have been reported.[Ref]

Hematologic

Hematologic side effects have included purpura (1% or less); eosinophilia and lymphadenopathy (less than 1%); and thrombocytopenia, anemia, and leukopenia (less than 0.5%).[Ref]

Dermatologic

Dermatologic side effects have included rash and pruritus (3% or less); dermatitis, urticaria, and sweating (2% or less); alopecia (1% or less); angioedema, petechial rash, and photosensitivity reaction (less than 1%); and exfoliative dermatitis (less than 0.5%). Rare cases of erythromelalgia, pemphigus foliaceus, and pemphigoid nodularis have been reported. Exfoliative or bullous skin reactions (such as erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis), photosensitivity reactions, and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis have been reported during postmarketing experience.[Ref]

A single case of pemphigus foliaceus associated with nifedipine, resolving after discontinuation of the drug, and recurring upon rechallenge has been reported. Prior to this case, only drugs with an active sulfhydryl group, such as penicillamine and captopril, were implicated in the development of pemphigus foliaceus.[Ref]

Psychiatric

Psychiatric side effects have included nervousness (2% or less to 7%); mood changes (7%); jitteriness (2% or less); anxiety, depression, and paroniria (1% or less); confusion (less than 1%); paranoid syndrome (less than 0.5%); and agitation and psychosis.[Ref]

Other

Other side effects have included edema (10% to 30%); flushing/heat sensation (less than 3% to 25%); fatigue (4% to 5.9%); asthenia (less than 1% to 4%); chest pain, leg pain, and pain (3% or less); difficulties in balance, fever, and chills (2% or less); facial edema, hot flashes, malaise, periorbital edema, rigors, and tinnitus (1% or less); and cellulitis, abnormal laboratory test (unspecified), neck pain, and pelvic pain (less than 1%). A single report of falsely elevated laboratory urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) values by spectrophotometry during nifedipine (the active ingredient contained in Procardia XL) therapy has been reported.[Ref]

Respiratory

At least one case of acute pulmonary edema during tocolytic therapy with oral nifedipine (the active ingredient contained in Procardia XL) has been reported. The patient developed pulmonary edema 3 days after starting nifedipine (two doses of 20 mg sublingually 30 minutes apart followed by 40 mg orally every 6 hours). Symptoms included dyspnea, orthopnea, tachypnea, and tachycardia which resolved following discontinuation of nifedipine.[Ref]

Respiratory side effects have included dyspnea, cough, nasal congestion, sore throat, and wheezing (less than 1% to 6%); epistaxis and rhinitis (3% or less); pulmonary edema (2%); chest congestion (2% or less); and upper respiratory tract infection, respiratory disorder, and sinusitis (1% or less).[Ref]

Metabolic

Metabolic side effects have included gout and increased weight (1% or less), weight loss (less than 1%), and hyperglycemia.[Ref]

Musculoskeletal

Musculoskeletal side effects have included muscle cramps (2% or less to 8%); leg cramps and arthralgia (3% or less); inflammation and joint stiffness (2% or less); back pain and myalgia (1% or less); arthritis, joint disorder, and myasthenia (less than 1%), and arthritis with ANA (+) (less than 0.5%).[Ref]

Genitourinary

Genitourinary side effects have included impotence, polyuria, and urinary frequency (3% or less); sexual difficulties (2% or less); breast pain, dysuria, hematuria, and nocturia (1% or less); and urogenital disorder, erectile dysfunction, and gynecomastia (less than 1%).[Ref]

Ocular

Ocular side effects have included blurred vision (2% or less); abnormal lacrimation and abnormal vision (1% or less); amblyopia, conjunctivitis, diplopia, eye disorder, and eye hemorrhage (less than 1%); and transient blindness (at the peak of plasma level; less than 0.5%).[Ref]

References

1. Buring JE, Glynn RJ, Hennekens CH "Calcium channel blockers and myocardial infarction: a hypothesis formulated but not yet tested." JAMA 274 (1995): 654-5

2. Myrhed M, Wiholm B-E "Nifedipine: a survey of adverse effects." Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh) 58 (1986): 133-6

3. Kendall MJ, Lynch KP, Hjalmarson A, Kjekshus J "B-Blockers and sudden cardiac death." Ann Intern Med 123 (1995): 358-67

4. Kloner RA "Nifedipine in ischemic heart disease." Circulation 92 (1995): 1074-8

5. Carpi J "Calcium channel blocker debate refuses to die." Internal Medicine News June 15 (1995): 1(col4),2(col3)

6. "Product Information. Adalat (nifedipine)." Bayer, West Haven, CT.

7. American Health Consultants "Do calcium-channel blockers increase the risk of myocardial infarctions?" Internal Medicine Alert 17 (1995): 49-50

8. Hermida RC, Ayala DE, Mojon A, Fernandez JR "Chronotherapy With nifedipine GITS in hypertensive patients: improved efficacy and safety with bedtime dosing." Am J Hypertens 21 (2008): 948-54

9. Carraway RD "Febrile reaction following nifedipine therapy." Am Heart J 108 (1984): 611

10. Favre L, Vallotton MB "Nifedipine in pheochromocytoma." Ann Intern Med 104 (1986): 125

11. Furberg CD, Psaty BM, Meyer JV "Nifedipine: dose-related increase in mortality in patients with coronary heart disease." Circulation 92 (1995): 1326-31

12. Psaty BM, Heckbert SR, Koepsell TD, et al. "The risk of myocardial infarction associated with antihypertensive drug therapies." JAMA 274 (1995): 620-5

13. Elkayam U, Amin J, Mehra A, Vasquez J, Weber L, Rahimtoola SH "A prospective, randomized, double-blind, crossover study to compare the efficacy and safety of chronic nifedipine therapy with that of isosorbide dinitrate and their combination in the treatment ofchronic congestive heart failure." Circulation 82 (1990): 1954-61

14. Glasser SP, Jain A, Allenby KS, Shannon T, Pride K, Pettis PP, Schwartz LA, Maccarthy EP, Goldstein R, Lewis G, Sweet R, Li "The efficacy and safety of once-daily nifedipine: the coat-core formulation compared with the gastrointestinal therapeutic system formulation in patients with mild-to-moderate diastolic hypertension." Clin Ther 17 (1995): 12-29

15. Zidek W, Spiecker C, Knaup G, Steindl L, Breuer HWM "Comparison of the efficacy and safety of nifedipine coat-core versus amlodipine in the treatment of patients with mild-to-moderate essential hypertension." Clin Ther 17 (1995): 686-700

16. de Medina A, Biasini O, Rivera A, Sampera A "Nifedipine and myoclonic dystonia." Ann Intern Med 104 (1986): 125

17. Pedro-Botet ML, Caralps JB "Nifedipine and myoclonic disorders." Nephron 51 (1989): 281

18. Grossman E, Messerli FH, Grodzicki T, Kowey P "Should a moratorium be placed on sublingual nifedipine capsules given for hypertensive emergencies and pseudoemergencies?" JAMA 276 (1996): 1328-31

19. Ellrodt AG, Ault MJ, Riedinger MS, Murata GH "Efficacy and safety of sublingual nifedipine in hypertensive emergencies." Am J Med 79 (1985): 19-25

20. Schwartz JB, Upton RA, Lin ET, et al "Effect of cimetidine or ranitidine administration on nifedipine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics." Clin Pharmacol Ther 43 (1988): 673-80

21. Morton C, Hickey-Dwyer M "Cortical blindness after nifedipine treatment." Br Med J 305 (1992): 693

22. Murdoch D, Brogden R "Sustained release nidedipine formulations." Drugs 41 (1991): 737-79

23. DeWood MA, Wolbach RA "Randomized double-blind comparison of side effects of nicardipine and nifedipine in angina pectoris." Am Heart J 119 (1990): 468-78

24. Glasser SP, Ripa SR, Allenby KS, Schwartz LA, Commins BM, Jungerwirth S "The efficacy and safety of once-daily nifedipine administered without food: the coat-core formulation compared with the gastrointestinal therapeutic system formulation in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension." Clin Ther 17 (1995): 296-312

25. Wachter RM "Symptomatic hypotension induced by nifedipine in the acute treatment of severe hypertension." Arch Intern Med 147 (1987): 556-8

26. Partanen J, Nieminen MS, Luomanmaki K "Death in a patient with primary pulmonary hypertension after 20 mg of nifedipine." N Engl J Med 329 (1993): 812;

27. Bradbury J "Sublingual short-acting nifedipine causes serious side-effects." Lancet 348 (1996): 1159

28. Manga P, Vythilingum "Unstable angina precipitated by nifedipine." S Afr Med J 66 (1984): 144

29. Epstein M "Calcium antagonists should continue to be used for first-line treatment of hypertension." Arch Intern Med 155 (1995): 2150-6

30. Prigogine T, Waterlot Y, Gottignies P, et al "Acute nonhemodynamic pulmonary edema with nifedipine in primary pulmonary hypertension." Chest 100 (1991): 563-4

31. Pahor M, Manto A, Pedone C, Carosella L, Guralnik JM, Carbonin P "Age and severe adverse drug reactions caused by nifedipine and verapamil." J Clin Epidemiol 49 (1996): 921-8

32. Gillmer DJ, Kark P "Pulmonary oedema precipitated by nifedipine." Br Med J 280 (1980): 1420-1

33. Koshy A, Hadengue A, Lee SS, et al "Possible deleterious hemodynamic effect of nifedipine on portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis." Clin Pharmacol Ther 42 (1987): 295-8

34. Fisher JR, Padnick MB, Olstein S "Nifedipine and erythromelalgia." Ann Intern Med 98 (1983): 671-2

35. Eicher JC, Morelon P, Chalopin JM, et al "Acute renal failure during nifedipine therapy in a patient with congestive heart failure." Crit Care Med 16 (1988): 1163-4

36. Plotkin CN, Eckenbrecht PD, Waldo DA "Consecutive cardiac arrests on induction of anesthesia associated with nifedipine-induced carotid sinus hypersensitivity." Anesth Analg 68 (1989): 402-5

37. Schanzenbacher P, Deeg P, Liebau G, Kochsiek K "Paradoxical angina after nifedipine: angiographic documentation." Am J Cardiol 53 (1984): 345-6

38. Diamond JR, Cheung JY, Fang LS "Nifedipine-induced renal dysfunction." Am J Med 77 (1984): 905-9

39. Schwartz M, Naschitz JE, Yeshurun D, et al "Oral nifedipine in the treatment of hypertensive urgency: cerebrovascular accident following a single dose." Arch Intern Med 150 (1990): 686-7

40. Sleight P "Calcium antagonists during and after myocardial infarction." Drugs 51 (1996): 216-25

41. Sia STB, MacDonald PS, Triester B, et al "Aggravation of myocardial ischaemia by nifedipine." Med J Aust 142 (1985): 48-50

42. Zangerle KF, Wolford R "Syncope and conduction disturbances following sublingual nifedipine for hypertension." Ann Emerg Med 14 (1985): 1005-6

43. Tordjman K, Rosenthal T, Bursztyn M "Nifedipine-induced periorbital edema." Am J Cardiol 55 (1985): 1445

44. Woodmansey P, Channer KS "Nifedipine and hypotension." Lancet 338 (1991): 763-4

45. Yusuf S "Calcium antagonists in coronary artery disease and hypertension: time for reevaluation?" Circulation 92 (1995): 1079-82

46. Levy R, Nagaukershriker O, Schlaeffer F "Inhibited neutrophil functions in patients treated with nifedipine but not with verapamil or diltiazem." Eur J Clin Invest 26 (1996): 376-81

47. Rossi DR, Rathbun RC, Slater LN "Symptomatic orthostasis with extended-release nifedipine and protease inhibitors." Pharmacotherapy 22 (2002): 1312-6

48. Peters FP, de Zwaan C, Kho L "Prolonged QT interval and ventricular fibrillation after treatment with sublingual nifedipine for malignant hypertension" Arch Intern Med 157 (1997): 2665-6

49. Oei SG, Oei SK, Brolmann HAM "Myocardial infarction during nifedipine therapy for preterm labor." N Engl J Med 340 (1999): 154

50. Aromatorio GJ, Uretsky BF, Reddy PS "Hypotension and sinus arrest with nifedipine in pulmonary hypertension." Chest 87 (1985): 265-7

51. Opie LH, Messerli FH "Nifedipine and mortality: grave defects in the dossier." Circulation 92 (1995): 1068-73

52. Batra AK, Segall PH, Ahmed T "Pulmonary edema with nifedipine in primary pulmonary hypertension." Respiration 47 (1985): 161-3

53. Pitlik S, Manor RS, Lipshitz I, et al "Transient retinal ischaemia induced by nifedipine." Br Med J 287 (1983): 1845-6

54. Vassilieff N, Rosencher N, Sessler DI, Conseiller C, Lienhart A "Nifedipine and intraoperative core body temperature in humans." Anesthesiology 80 (1994): 123-8

55. Ramsdale DR, Morris JL, Hardy P "Gingival hyperplasia with nifedipine." Br Heart J 73 (1995): 115

56. Bullon P, Machuca G, Martinezsahuquillo A, Rios JV, Velasco E, Rojas J, Lacalle JR "Evaluation of gingival and periodontal conditions following causal periodontal treatment in patients treated with nifedipine and diltiazem." J Clin Periodontol 23 (1996): 649-57

57. Ellis J, Seymour R, Monkman S, Idle J "Gingival sequestration of nifedipine in nifedipine-induced gingival overgrowth." Lancet 339 (1992): 1382-3

58. Niezabitowski LM, Nguyen BN, Gums JG "Extended-release nifedipine bezoar identified one year after discontinuation." Ann Pharmacother 34 (2000): 862-4

59. Smitz S, Bonnet V, Delporte JP "Severe gastrointestinal dysfunction and retention of extended release nifedipine tablets." J Am Geriatr Soc 46 (1998): 656-7

60. Silverstein LH, Koch JP, Shatz PC "Nifedipine-induced gingival hyperplasia." Am Fam Physician 53 (1996): 1069-70

61. Wax PM "Intestinal infarction due to nifedipine overdose." J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 33 (1995): 725-8

62. Harelraviv M, Eckler M, Lalani K, Raviv E, Gornitsky M "Nifedipine-induced gingival hyperplasia: a comprehensive review and analysis." Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 79 (1995): 715-22

63. Abramson M, Littlejohn GO "Hepatic reactions to nifedipine." Med J Aust 142 (1985): 47-8

64. Steele RM, Schuna AA, Schreiber RT "Calcium antagonist-induced gingival hyperplasia." Ann Intern Med 120 (1994): 663-4

65. Ellis JS, Seymour RA, Steele JG, Robertson P, Butler TJ, Thomason JM "Prevalence of gingival overgrowth induced by calcium channel blockers: a community-based study." J Periodontol 70 (1999): 63-7

66. Wells CD, Luckritz TC, Rady MY, Zornik JM, Leighton JA, Patel BM "Bezoar formation requiring endoscopic removal after intentional overdose of extended-release nifedipine." Pharmacotherapy 26 (2006): 1802-5

67. Levenson JL, Kennedy K "Dysomia, dysgeusia, and nifedipine." Ann Intern Med 102 (1985): 135-6

68. Koller-Benz G, Fritzsche A, Krapf R "Nifedipine induced gingival abscesses." Br Med J 304 (1992): 1225

69. Ovalle F, Mesa F, Aneiros J, Gomezmorales M, Lucena MA, Ramirez C, Revelles F, Moreno E, Navarro N, Caballero T, Masseroli M, D "Gingival overgrowth induced by nifedipine and cyclosporin a. clinical and morphometric study with image analysis." J Clin Periodontol 22 (1995): 591-7

70. Johnson RB "Nifedipine-induced gingival overgrowth." Ann Pharmacother 31 (1997): 935

71. Richter WO, Schwandt P "Serious side effect of nifedipine." Arch Intern Med 147 (1987): 1852

72. Nery EB, Edson RG, Lee KK, Pruthi VK, Watson J "Prevalence of nifedipine-induced gingival hyperplasia." J Periodontol 66 (1995): 572-8

73. Babany G, Uzzan F, Larrey D, et al "Alcoholic-like liver lesions induced by nifedipine." J Hepatol 9 (1989): 252-5

74. Demarie BK, Bakris GL "Effects of different calcium antagonists on proteinuria associated with diabetes mellitus." Ann Intern Med 113 (1990): 987-8

75. Cacoub P, Deray JY, Deray G, et al "Nifedipine-induced acute renal failure." Clin Nephrol 29 (1988): 272-3

76. Reams G, Lau A, Knaus V, Bauer J "The effect of nifedipine GITS on renal function in hypertensive patients with renal insufficiency." J Clin Pharmacol 31 (1991): 468-72

77. Zucchelli P, Zuccala A, Borghi M, et al "Long-term comparison between captopril and nifedipine in the progression of renal insufficiency." Kidney Int 42 (1992): 452-8

78. Hall-Craggs M, Light PD, Peters RW "Development of immune complex nephritis during treatment with the calcium channel-blocking agent nifedipine." Hum Pathol 15 (1984): 691-4

79. Scoble JE, Uff JS, Eastwood B "Nifedipine nephritis." Clin Nephrol 21 (1984): 302

80. Diamond JR, Cheung JY, Fang LST "Nifedipine-induced renal dysfunction." Am J Med 77 (1984): 905-9

81. Toner M, White A, Moriarty J, Clancy L "Allergic urticarial eruption, leukocytosis and abnormal liver function tests following nifedipine administration." Chest 93 (1988): 1320-1

82. Springuel P "Erythema multiforme and nifedipine." Can Med Assoc J 156 (1997): 90-1

83. Osafune K, Iehara N, Takeoka H, Doi T, Kita T "Nifedipine and haemolytic anaemia." J Intern Med 247 (2000): 299-300

84. Laporte JR, Ibanez L, Ballarin E, Perez E, Vidal X "Fatal aplastic anaemia associated with nifedipine." Lancet 352 (1998): 619-20

85. Brenner S, Ruocco V, BialyGolan A, Tur E, Flaminio C, Ruocco E, Lombardi ML "Pemphigus and pemphigoid-like effects of nifedipine on in vitro cultured normal human skin explants." Int J Dermatol 38 (1999): 36-40

86. Kim SC, Won JH, Ahn SK "Pemphigus foliaceus induced by nifedipine." Acta Derm Venereol 73 (1993): 210-1

87. Tsele E, Chu AC "Nifedipine and telangiectasias." Lancet 339 (1992): 365-6

88. van der Wall EE, Tuinzing DB, Hes J "Gingival hyperplasia induced by nifedipine, an arterial vasodilating drug." Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Patho 60 (1985): 38-40

89. Sunahara JF, Gora-Harper ML, Nash KS "Possible erythromelalgia-like syndrome associated with nifedipine in a patient with Raynaud's phenomenon." Ann Pharmacother 30 (1996): 484-6

90. Ameen M, Harman KE, Black MM "Pemphigoid nodularis associated with nifedipine." Br J Dermatol 142 (2000): 575-7

91. McDevitt D, Currie D, Nicholson A, Wright N, Zetlein M "Central effects of the calcium antagonist, nifedipine." Br J Clin Pharmacol 32 (1991): 541-9

92. Hullett FJ, Potkin SG, Levy AB, Ciasca R "Depression associated with nifedipine-induced calcium channel blockade." Am J Psychiatry 145 (1988): 1277-9

93. Kahn JK "Nifedipine-associated acute psychosis." Am J Med 81 (1986): 705-6

94. Abbas OM, Nassar AH, Kanj NA, Usta IM "Acute pulmonary edema during tocolytic therapy with nifedipine." Am J Obstet Gynecol 195 (2006): e3-e4

Disclaimer: Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided is accurate, up-to-date and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. In addition, the drug information contained herein may be time sensitive and should not be utilized as a reference resource beyond the date hereof. This material does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients, or recommend therapy. This information is a reference resource designed as supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill , knowledge, and judgement of healthcare practitioners in patient care. The absence of a warning for a given drug or combination thereof in no way should be construed to indicate safety, effectiveness, or appropriateness for any given patient. Drugs.com does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of materials provided. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the substances you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist.

Hide
(web1)