Mannitol Side Effects
Some side effects of mannitol may not be reported. Always consult your doctor or healthcare specialist for medical advice. You may also report side effects to the FDA.
For the Consumer
Applies to mannitol: intravenous solution
Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction while taking mannitol: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
Tell your caregivers at once if you have any of the following symptoms. Some of these may be caused by your kidney condition and are not side effects of mannitol:
dry mouth, increased thirst, blurred vision, or seizure (convulsions);
swelling, pain, or skin changes where the medicine was injected;
chest pain, fast heart rate;
feeling like you might pass out;
feeling short of breath, even with mild exertion;
swelling, rapid weight gain; or
if you stop urinating.
Less serious side effects of mannitol may include:
mild skin rash.
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Tell your doctor about any unusual or bothersome side effect.
For Healthcare Professionals
Applies to mannitol: compounding powder, inhalation kit, intravenous solution, irrigation solution
Cardiovascular side effects have included hypotension and tachycardia. Venous thrombosis or phlebitis extending from the injection site and hypervolemia have occurred rarely and are generally associated with the solution or technique used in administration.
Respiratory side effects have included pulmonary congestion and rhinitis. Respiratory side effects associated with mannitol inhalation have included cough, gagging, wheeze, and decreased forced expiratory volume.
Metabolic side effects have included fluid and electrolyte imbalance, acidosis, and electrolyte loss.
Nervous system side effects have included headache, convulsions, and dizziness.
Hematologic side effects have included thrombophlebitis.
Eight cases of mannitol IV overdose in patients with preexisting renal failure were reviewed. Symptoms presented in the reviewed cases were CNS involvement out of proportion to uremia, severe hyponatremia, large osmolality gap, and fluid overload. Six patients were treated with hemodialysis, one patient with peritoneal dialysis, and one patient died before initiation of treatment. All patients received large doses over 1 to 3 days with a mean dose of 310 +/- 182.8 g. CNS involvement consisted of CNS depression, confusion, lethargy, stupor, and coma. Two patients recovered cerebral function and continued on lifetime dialysis, 3 patients recovered renal and cerebral function, and 1 patient recovered renal function but had severe cerebral dysfunction.
Other side effects have included dryness of mouth, thirst, edema, arm pain, chills, dehydration, fever, mannitol intoxication, and angina-like pain.
Renal side effects have included acute renal failure.
Local side effects have included extravasation. This effect is generally attributed to the solution or technique used in administration.
Dermatologic side effects have included urticaria and skin necrosis.
Ocular side effects have included blurred vision.
Immunologic side effects have included infection at the injection site and febrile response. These effects are usually attributed to solution or technique used in administration.
Gastrointestinal side effects have included nausea and vomiting.
Genitourinary side effects have included marked diuresis and urinary retention.
A 75-year-old woman with severe major depression experienced a manic episode 30 minutes after initiation of a 20% mannitol intravenous infusion for the treatment of acute angle closure glaucoma. The patient had been started on nortriptyline 50 mg per day for the treatment of depression ten days earlier. She received oral acetazolamide, topical pilocarpine, topical timolol, and topical dexamethasone concomitantly for the treatment of glaucoma. The mania resolved within approximately 1 hour following discontinuation of the mannitol infusion, and the patient returned to a severe depressive state. An extensive lab evaluation, toxicology screening, and medical examination failed to show additional secondary causes for mania in this patient.
Psychiatric side effects have rarely included mania (1 case report).
More mannitol resources
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