Cloxacillin Side Effects

Not all side effects for cloxacillin may be reported. You should always consult a doctor or healthcare professional for medical advice. Side effects can be reported to the FDA here.

For the Consumer

Applies to cloxacillin: oral capsule, oral powder for reconstitution

If you experience any of the following serious side effects, stop taking cloxacillin and seek emergency medical attention:

  • an allergic reaction (shortness of breath; closing of your throat; hives; swelling of your lips, face, or tongue; rash; or fainting);

  • seizures;

  • severe watery diarrhea and abdominal cramps; or

  • unusual bleeding or bruising.

Other, less serious side effects maybe more likely to occur. Continue to take cloxacillin and talk to your doctor if you experience

  • mild nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or abdominal pain;

  • white patches on the tongue (thrush/yeast infection);

  • itching or discharge of the vagina (vaginal yeast infection); or

  • black, "hairy" tongue or sore mouth or tongue.

Side effects other than those listed here may also occur. Talk to your doctor about any side effect that seems unusual or that is especially bothersome.

For Healthcare Professionals

Applies to cloxacillin: oral capsule, oral powder for reconstitution

Gastrointestinal

Common gastrointestinal complaints include nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Rarely the use of cloxacillin has been associated with pseudomembranous colitis.[Ref]

Hematologic

Hematologic adverse effects include neutropenia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia. Neutropenia has occurred in 17% of patients and occurs most commonly with higher doses and longer durations of therapy. Neutropenia occurs most often after 14 days of therapy and is reversible upon discontinuation.[Ref]

Hepatic

Hepatic side effects include transient increases in serum transaminases and the development of cholestatic hepatitis. Liver transaminases may take several weeks to return to normal following discontinuation of therapy. Frequent monitoring of liver function tests is recommended in patients with liver disease.[Ref]

Hypersensitivity

Hypersensitivity reactions include rash, fever, eosinophilia, pruritus, fever, chills, and myalgias.[Ref]

References

1. Pusponegoro EH, Wiryadi BE "Clindamycin and cloxacillin compared in the treatment of skin and soft-tissue infections." Clin Ther 12 (1990): 236-41

2. Westerman EL, Bradshaw MW, Williams TW "Agranulocytosis during therapy with orally administered cloxacillin." Am J Clin Pathol 69 (1978): 559-60

3. Olaison L, Alestig K "A prospective study of neutropenia induced by high doses of B-lactam antiobiotics." J Antimicrob Chemother 25 (1990): 449-53

4. Clotet B, Vea AM, Rubies-Prat J, Sala MF "Cloxacillin-induced leukopenia." Arch Intern Med 145 (1985): 1531

5. Neftel K, Muller MR, Hauser SP, Walti M, de Weck AL "More on penicillin-induced leukopenia." N Engl J Med 308 (1983): 901-2

6. Shah I, Kumar KS, Lerner AM "Agranulocytosis associated with chronic oral administration of cloxacillin for suppression of staphylococcal osteomyelitis." Am J Hematol 12 (1982): 203-6

7. Pascual J, Orofino L, Marcen R, Quereda C, Ortuno J "Cloxacillin-induced cholestasis in a renal allograft patient with chronic hepatitis." Am J Gastroenterol 85 (1990): 335-6

8. Olsson R, Wiholm BE, Sand C, Zettergren L, Hultcrantz R, Myrhed M "Liver damage from flucloxacillin, cloxacillin and dicloxacillin." J Hepatol 15 (1992): 154-61

9. Lotricfurlan S, Lejkozupanc T, Jereb M "Cloxacillin-induced cholestasis." Clin Infect Dis 19 (1994): 981-2

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