Benicar HCT Side Effects

Generic Name: hydrochlorothiazide / olmesartan

Note: This page contains information about the side effects of hydrochlorothiazide / olmesartan. Some of the dosage forms included on this document may not apply to the brand name Benicar HCT.

Not all side effects for Benicar HCT may be reported. You should always consult a doctor or healthcare professional for medical advice. Side effects can be reported to the FDA here.

For the Consumer

Applies to hydrochlorothiazide / olmesartan: oral tablet

In addition to its needed effects, some unwanted effects may be caused by hydrochlorothiazide / olmesartan. In the event that any of these side effects do occur, they may require medical attention.

You should check with your doctor immediately if any of these side effects occur when taking hydrochlorothiazide / olmesartan:

Less common
  • Bladder pain
  • bloating or swelling of the face, arms, hands, lower legs, or feet
  • bloody or cloudy urine
  • blurred vision
  • chest pain
  • difficult, burning, or painful urination
  • flushed, dry skin
  • frequent urge to urinate
  • fruit-like breath odor
  • increased hunger
  • increased urination
  • joint pain, stiffness, or swelling
  • lower back, side, or stomach pain
  • rapid weight gain
  • sweating
  • swelling of the feet or lower legs
  • tingling of the hands or feet
  • troubled breathing
  • unexplained weight loss
  • unusual weight gain or loss
Rare
  • Swelling or puffiness of the face
Incidence not known
  • Convulsions
  • decrease in the amount of urine
  • diarrhea (severe) with weight loss
  • dizziness, faintness, or lightheadedness when getting up from a lying or sitting position
  • rash

Some of the side effects that can occur with hydrochlorothiazide / olmesartan may not need medical attention. As your body adjusts to the medicine during treatment these side effects may go away. Your health care professional may also be able to tell you about ways to reduce or prevent some of these side effects. If any of the following side effects continue, are bothersome or if you have any questions about them, check with your health care professional:

More common
  • Back pain
  • body aches or pain
  • chills
  • cough
  • difficulty with breathing
  • ear congestion or pain
  • fever
  • headache
  • head congestion
  • hoarseness or other voice changes
  • loss of voice
  • runny or stuffy nose
  • sneezing
  • sore throat
Less common
  • Acid or sour stomach
  • belching
  • difficulty with moving
  • dizziness or lightheadedness
  • feeling of constant movement of self or surroundings
  • heartburn
  • indigestion
  • joint pain, stiffness, or swelling
  • loss of appetite
  • muscle pain or stiffness
  • pain, swelling, or redness in the joints
  • sensation of spinning
  • stomach discomfort or upset
  • weakness
Incidence not known
  • Diarrhea
  • muscle pain or stiffness
  • nervousness
  • weakness or heaviness of the legs

For Healthcare Professionals

Applies to hydrochlorothiazide / olmesartan: oral tablet

Cardiovascular

Cardiovascular side effects of olmesartan have been reported in 0.5% to 1% of patients, including tachycardia, chest pain, and peripheral edema. Symptomatic hypotension may occur in volume- or salt-depleted patients. Facial edema has been reported in 5 patients. Other angiotensin II antagonists have been associated with angioedema. Cardiac arrhythmias, including ventricular ectopy and complete AV heart block, are associated with hypokalemia and hyponatremia due to hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ). Hypotension has been reported in association with HCTZ-induced pulmonary edema. Orthostatic hypotension may occur and may rarely be associated with syncope, particularly in the elderly.[Ref]

The incidence of premature ventricular contractions associated with HCTZ as measured by 48-hour ambulatory ECG monitoring is the same in both patients with and without left ventricular hypertrophy despite a similar fall in serum potassium concentrations.[Ref]

Dermatologic

Dermatologic side effects of olmesartan have included rash (0.5% to 1%), alopecia, pruritus, and urticaria.

Dermatologic reactions associated with hydrochlorothiazide include case reports of erythema annular centrifugum, acute eczematous dermatitis, and morbilliform and leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Thiazides may induce phototoxic dermatitis. In addition, a rare, distinct entity with clinical and laboratory features indistinguishable from those of subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus is associated with HCTZ.[Ref]

A 67-year-old woman with hypothyroidism, hypercalcemia, depression, and hypertension developed facial erythema, headaches, tremors, confusion and personality changes associated with a new positive ANA and anti-nRNP, and a skin biopsy consistent with lupus erythematosus while taking hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), levothyroxine, and amitriptyline. The eruption resolved upon discontinuation of HCTZ, but she later developed a higher ANA titer associated with symptomatic diffuse interstitial pulmonary infiltrates. She was successfully treated with corticosteroids.[Ref]

Endocrine

A prospective study of 34 patients who received oral thiazide-type diuretics for 14 years without interruption revealed an increased average fasting blood glucose level after treatment. Withdrawal of thiazide therapy for 7 months in 10 of the patients resulted in average reductions of 10% in the fasting blood glucose and 25% in the 2-hour glucose tolerance test values. A control group was not reported.[Ref]

Endocrinologic problems associated with thiazide diuretics include glucose intolerance and a potentially deleterious effect on the lipid profile. This may be important in some patients with or who are at risk for diabetes or coronary artery disease. A single case of recurrent parathyroid adenoma is reported, although the association is probably coincidental.[Ref]

Gastrointestinal

Thiazide diuretics may increase serum cholesterol and triglycerides, resulting in increased risk of cholesterol gallstone formation. Reports of bowel strictures associated with thiazide ingestion have been reported in the 1960's although these patients were on a combination HCTZ-potassium product.[Ref]

Gastrointestinal side effects of olmesartan have been reported in 0.5% to 1% of patients, including abdominal pain, dyspepsia, diarrhea, gastroenteritis, and nausea. Vomiting has also been reported in postmarketing experience.

Gastrointestinal side effects associated with HCTZ are unusual, and include case reports of pancreatitis and acute cholecystitis.[Ref]

Genitourinary

Genitourinary side effects of olmesartan have included urinary tract infection (0.5% to 1%).[Ref]

Hematologic

Hematologic side effects of olmesartan have included small decreases in hemoglobin (0.3 g/dL) and hematocrit (0.3 vol%). Cases of immune complex hemolytic anemia, aplastic anemia, and thrombocytopenia have been reported following HCTZ administration.[Ref]

Hepatic

Hepatic side effects of olmesartan have rarely included liver enzyme and serum bilirubin elevations.[Ref]

Hypersensitivity

Hypersensitivity (usually nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and rash) has been reported in less than 1% of patients taking HCTZ. Rare cases of acute pulmonary edema, interstitial cystitis, and interstitial nephritis, and anaphylaxis have been reported. Rare cases of angioedema have been reported in patients receiving olmesartan.[Ref]

There have been approximately 34 known cases of thiazide-induced pulmonary edema, encompassing 52 episodes of pulmonary edema, as of 1991 (per a 1996 review). In some cases, doses as small as 12.5 mg were associated with the development of pulmonary edema. The average time to onset of this adverse reaction is 44 minutes, women carry a relative risk of 9:1, and the average age is 56 years. The mortality rate is 6%. Some experts consider this side effect grossly underreported.[Ref]

Immunologic

Immunologic side effects reported during HCTZ therapy are rare, and include case reports of allergic vasculitis and hemolytic anemia. There are numerous case reports of patients developing a rash histologically identical to subacute cutaneous lupus following HCTZ administration.[Ref]

There are rare case reports of hydrochlorothiazide-induced immune hemolytic anemia. The following illustrates a fatal case:

A 53-year-old man with hypertension developed nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and progressive anorexia and weakness associated with scleral icterus, anemia with spherocytosis, dark red urine with proteinuria, bilirubinuria, hemoglobinuria, and elevated lactic dehydrogenase levels 18 months after beginning hydrochlorothiazide and methyldopa. Haptoglobin was less than 50 mg per dl. Direct and indirect Coombs tests were positive. The patient died suddenly; autopsy revealed no obvious cause of death, left ventricular hypertrophy, and mild coronary atherosclerosis.[Ref]

Metabolic

Since HCTZ may increase total serum cholesterol by 11%, LDL lipoprotein cholesterol by 12%, and VLDL lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 50%, and may reduce insulin secretion, it should be used with caution in diabetic patients and in those with hypercholesterolemia. True glucose intolerance may develop in approximately 3% of patients. It is typically reversible within six months after discontinuation of therapy.

Hyperuricemia may be an important consideration in patients with a history of gout. Hypophosphatemia and low serum magnesium concentrations may occur, but are usually clinically insignificant except in malnourished patients.[Ref]

Metabolic side effects of olmesartan have been reported in 0.5% to 1% of patients, including hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, and hyperuricemia. Metabolic side effects during HCTZ therapy are common, especially when doses greater than 50 mg per day are used. Mild hypokalemia (decrease of 0.5 mEq/L) occurs in up to 50% of patients, and may predispose patients to cardiac arrhythmias. Metabolic alkalosis, hyponatremia, hypomagnesemia, hypercalcemia, hyperglycemia, and elevated serum uric acid levels are also relatively common. Hydrochlorothiazide may increase serum cholesterol. Hyperkalemia has also been reported in postmarketing experience.[Ref]

Musculoskeletal

Musculoskeletal side effects of olmesartan have been reported in 0.5% to 1% of patients, including arthralgia, arthritis, myalgia, and skeletal pain. In addition, rare reports of rhabdomyolysis have been reported during postmarketing experience in patients receiving angiotensin II receptor blockers.

Musculoskeletal side effects associated with HCTZ are unusual, and include case reports of myalgias and chills. Preservation of mineral bone density has also been observed in older patients.[Ref]

Nervous system

Nervous system side effects of olmesartan have included dizziness (3% vs. 1% with placebo), vertigo (0.5% to 1%), and insomnia (0.5% to 1%). Asthenia has also been reported in postmarketing experience.

A nervous system side effect, cerebrovascular insufficiency, has been associated with HCTZ-induced plasma volume contraction.[Ref]

Other

Other side effects of olmesartan that have been reported in more than 1% of patients but at the same or greater incidence than placebo included back pain, bronchitis, increased creatine phosphokinase, diarrhea, headache, hematuria, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, inflicted injury, influenza-like symptoms, pharyngitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, and upper respiratory tract infection. Fatigue and pain have been reported in 0.5% to 1% of patients.[Ref]

Renal

Although hydrochlorothiazide has been used to treat nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, a case report in which the drug was believed to have caused this condition has been reported.[Ref]

Renal side effects associated with ACE inhibitors have included increases in serum creatinine or BUN in patients with renal artery stenosis. Acute renal failure and increased serum creatinine levels have been reported in postmarketing experience with olmesartan.

Renal insufficiency, manifesting as an increase in serum creatinine and BUN may occur due to HCTZ-induced intravascular volume depletion. Rare cases of interstitial nephritis have been reported.[Ref]

Respiratory

Respiratory side effects of olmesartan have included cough (0.9% vs 0.7% with placebo). Respiratory side effects associated with HCTZ are rare, and include approximately 30 case reports of acute noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. These cases are thought to be due to idiosyncrasy or a hypersensitivity mechanism.[Ref]

Ocular

Ocular side effects have included idiosyncratic reactions to the hydrochlorothiazide component resulting in acute transient myopia and acute angle-closure glaucoma.

References

1. Hollifield JW, Slaton PE "Thiazide diuretics, hypokalemia and cardiac arrhythmias." Acta Med Scand Suppl 647 (1981): 67-73

2. Holland OB, Kuhnert L, Pollard J, Padia M, Anderson RJ, Blomqvist G "Ventricular ectopic activity with diuretic therapy." Am J Hypertens 1 (1988): 380-5

3. Freis ED "The efficacy and safety of diuretics in treating hypertension." Ann Intern Med 122 (1995): 223-6

4. Weir MR, Wright JT, Jr Ferdinand KC, Cook CA, Champion D, Wong S, Jenkins PA, Kong BW "Comparison of the efficacy and metabolic effects of nicardipine and hydrochlorothiazide in hypertensive black men and women." J Hum Hypertens 7 (1993): 141-7

5. Grunwald MH, Halevy S, Livni E "Allergic vasculitis induced by hydrochlorothiazide: confirmation by mast cell degranulation test." Isr J Med Sci 25 (1989): 572-4

6. Mouallem M, Friedman E, Shemesh Y, Mayan H, Pauzner R, Farfel Z "Cardiac conduction defects associated with hyponatremia." Clin Cardiol 14 (1991): 165-8

7. Ragnarsson J, Hardarson T, Snorrason SP "Ventricular dysrhythmias in middle-aged hypertensive men treated either with a diuretic agent or a beta-blocker." Acta Med Scand 221 (1987): 143-8

8. Pollare T, Lithell H, Berne C "A comparison of the effects of hydrochlorothiazide and captopril on glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with hypertension." N Engl J Med 321 (1989): 868-73

9. Krishna GG, Narins RG "Hemodynamic consequences of diuretic-induced hypokalemia." Am J Kidney Dis 12 (1988): 329-31

10. Mahabir RN, Laufer ST "Clinical evaluation of diuretics in congestive heart failure. A detailed study in four patients." Arch Intern Med 124 (1969): 1-7

11. "Product Information. Benicar (olmesartan)." Sankyo Parke Davis, Parsippany, NJ.

12. Papademetriou V, Fletcher R, Khatri IM, Freis ED "Diuretic-induced hypokalemia in uncomplicated systemic hypertension: effect of plasma potassium correction on cardiac arrhythmias." Am J Cardiol 52 (1983): 1017-22

13. Pollare T, Lithell H, Berne C "A comparison of the effects of hydrochlorothiazide and captopril on glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with hypertension." N Engl J Med 321 (1989): 868-73

14. "Product Information. Benicar HCT (hydrochlorothiazide-olmesartan)." Sankyo Parke Davis, Parsippany, NJ.

15. Goodrich AL, Kohn SR "Hydrochlorothiazide-induced lupus erythematosus: a new variant?" J Am Acad Dermatol 28 (1993): 1001-2

16. Brown CW, Deng JS "Thiazide diuretics induce cutaneous lupus-like adverse reaction." J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 33 (1995): 729-33

17. Bjornberg A, Gisslen H "Thiazides: A cause of necrotising vasculitis?" Lancet 2 (1965): 982-3

18. Goette DK, Beatrice E "Erythema annulare centrifugum caused by hydrochlorothiazide-induced interstitial nephritis." Int J Dermatol 27 (1988): 129-30

19. Diffey BL, Langtry J "Phototoxic potential of thiazide diuretics in normal subjects." Arch Dermatol 125 (1989): 1355-8

20. Robinson HN, Morison WL, Hood AF "Thiazide diuretic therapy and chronic photosensitivity." Arch Dermatol 121 (1985): 522-4

21. Rich MW, Eckman JM "Can hydrochlorothiazide cause lupus?" J Rheumatol 22 (1995): 1001

22. Parodi A, Romagnoli M, Rebora A "Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus-like eruption caused by hydrochlorothiazide." Photodermatol 6 (1989): 100-2

23. Reed BR, Huff JC, Jones SK, Orton PW, Lee LA, Norris DA "Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus associated with hydrochlorothiazide therapy." Ann Intern Med 103 (1985): 49-51

24. Harper R, Ennis CN, Heaney AP, Sheridan B, Gormley M, Atkinson AB, Johnston GD, Bell PM "A comparison of the effects of low- and conventional-dose thiazide diuretic on insulin action in hypertensive patients with NIDDM." Diabetologia 38 (1995): 853-9

25. Bell DS "Insulin resistance. An often unrecognized problem accompanying chronic medical disorders." Postgrad Med 93 (1993): 99-103,

26. Balizet L "Recurrent parathyroid adenoma. Association with prolonged thiazide administration." JAMA 225 (1973): 1238-9

27. Murphy MB, Kohner E, Lewis PJ, Schumer B, Dollery CT "Glucose intolerance in hypertensive patients treated with diuretics: a fourteen-year follow-up." Lancet 2 (1982): 1293-5

28. Klimiuk PS, Davies M, Adams PH "Primary hyperparathyroidism and thiazide diuretics." Postgrad Med J 57 (1981): 80-3

29. Fager G, Berglund G, Bondjers G, Elmfeldt D, Lager I, Olofsson SO, Smith U, Wiklund O "Effects of anti-hypertensive therapy on serum lipoproteins. Treatment with metoprolol, propranolol and hydrochlorothiazide." Artery 11 (1983): 283-96

30. Kasiske BL, Ma JZ, Kalil RS, Louis TA "Effects of antihypertensive therapy on serum lipids." Ann Intern Med 122 (1995): 133-41

31. Wagner W, Longerbeam JK, Smith LL, Feikes HL "Drug-induced ulcers of the small bowel causing intestinal obstruction or perforation." Am Surg 33 (1967): 7-11

32. Diamond MT "Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar coma associated with hydrochlorothiazide and pancreatitis." N Y State J Med 72 (1972): 1741-2

33. Dietz MW "Iatrogenic jejunal ulcer." Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 99 (1967): 136-8

34. Smith BL, Tedeschi A, Lane CD "Pancreatitis with a twist." Hosp Pract (Off Ed) 23 (1988): 150,

35. Campbell JR, Knapp RW "Small bowel ulceration associated with thiazide and potassium therapy: review of 13 cases." Ann Surg 163 (1966): 291-6

36. Gould L, Reddy CV, Zen B, Singh BK "Life-threatening reaction to thiazides." N Y State J Med 80 (1980): 1975-6

37. Rosenberg L, Shapiro S, Slone D, Kaufman DW, Miettinen OS, Stolley PD "Thiazides and acute cholecystitis." N Engl J Med 303 (1980): 546-8

38. Reinus FZ, Weinberger HA, Fischer WW "Medication-induced ulceration of the small bowel." Am J Surg 112 (1966): 97-101

39. Holland GW "Stenosing ulcers of the small bowel associated with thiazide and potassium therapy." N Z Med J 64 (1965): 383-5

40. Amery A, Berthaux P, Bulpitt C, Deruyttere M, de Schaepdryver A, Dollery C, Fagard R, Forette F, Hellemans J, Lund-Johansen PMutsers A, Tuomilehto J "Glucose intolerance during diuretic therapy. Results of trial by the European Working Party on Hypertension in the Elderly." Lancet 1 (1978): 681-3

41. Garratty G, Houston M, Petz LD, Webb M "Acute immune intravascular hemolysis due to hydrochlorothiazide." Am J Clin Pathol 76 (1981): 73-8

42. Magil AB "Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis with granulomas." Hum Pathol 14 (1983): 36-41

43. Hoss DM, Nierenberg DW "Severe shaking chills and fever following hydrochlorothiazide administration." Am J Med 85 (1988): 747

44. Biron P, Dessureault J, Napke E "Acute allergic interstitial pneumonitis induced by hydrochlorothiazide [published erratum appears in Can Med Assoc J 1991 Sep 1;145(5):391]." Can Med Assoc J 145 (1991): 28-34

45. Magil AB, Ballon HS, Cameron EC, Rae A "Acute interstitial nephritis associated with thiazide diuretics. Clinical and pathologic observations in three cases." Am J Med 69 (1980): 939-43

46. Grace AA, Morgan AD, Strickland NH "Hydrochlorothiazide causing unexplained pulmonary oedema." Br J Clin Pract 43 (1989): 79-81

47. Prupas HM, Brown D "Acute idiosyncratic reaction to hydrochlorothiazide ingestion." West J Med 138 (1983): 101-2

48. Alted E, Navarro M, Cantalapiedra JA, Alvarez JA, Blasco MA, Nunez A "Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema after oral ingestion of hydrochlorothiazide ." Intensive Care Med 13 (1987): 364-5

49. Hoegholm A, Rasmussen SW, Kristensen KS "Pulmonary oedema with shock induced by hydrochlorothiazide: a rare side effect mimicking myocardial infarction." Br Heart J 63 (1990): 186

50. Beaudry C, Laplante L "Severe allergic pneumonitis from hydrochlorothiazide." Ann Intern Med 78 (1973): 251-3

51. Dorn MR, Walker BK "Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with hydrochlorothiazide therapy." Chest 79 (1981): 482-3

52. Frierson JH, Marvel SL, Thomas GM "Hydrochlorothiazide-induced pulmonary edema with severe acute myocardial dysfunction." Clin Cardiol 18 (1995): 112-4

53. Geanon JD, Perkins TW "Bilateral acute angle-closure glaucoma associated with drug sensitivity to hydrochlorothiazide." Arch Ophthalmol 113 (1995): 1231-2

54. Levay ID "Hydrochlorothiazide-induced pulmonary edema." Drug Intell Clin Pharm 18 (1984): 238-9

55. Biron P "Thiazide-induced pulmonary edema." Ann Pharmacother 30 (1996): 415-6

56. Klein MD "Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema following hydrochlorothiazide ingestion." Ann Emerg Med 16 (1987): 901-3

57. Fine SR, Lodha A, Zoneraich S, Mollura JL "Thiazide-induced pulmonary edema." Ann Pharmacother 30 (1996): 416

58. Fine SR, Lodha A, Zoneraich S, Mollura JL "Hydrochlorothiazide-induced acute pulmonary edema." Ann Pharmacother 29 (1995): 701-3

59. Beck ML, Cline JF, Hardman JT, Racela LS, Davis JW "Fatal intravascular immune hemolysis induced by hydrochlorothiazide." Am J Clin Pathol 81 (1984): 791-4

60. Shirey RS, Bartholomew J, Bell W, Pollack B, Kickler TS, Ness PM "Characterization of antibody and selection of alternative drug therapy in hydrochlorothiazide-induced immune hemolytic anemia." Transfusion 28 (1988): 70-2

61. Pickkers P, Schachter M, Hughes AD, Feher MD, Sever PS "Thiazide-induced hyperglycaemia: a role for calcium-activated potassium channels?" Diabetologia 39 (1996): 861-4

62. Duarte CG, Winnacker JL, Becker KL, Pace A "Thiazide-induced hypercalcemia." N Engl J Med 284 (1971): 828-30

63. Pinnock CA "Hyponatraemia associated with hydrochlorothiazide treatment ." Br Med J 1 (1978): 48

64. Frassetto LA, Nash E, Morris RC, Sebastian A "Comparative effects of potassium chloride and bicarbonate on thiazide-induced reduction in urinary calcium excretion." Kidney Int 58 (2000): 748-52

65. Hakim R, Tolis G, Goltzman D, Meltzer S, Friedman R "Severe hypercalcemia associated with hydrochlorothiazide and calcium carbonate therapy." Can Med Assoc J 121 (1979): 591-4

66. Bain PG, Egner W, Walker PR "Thiazide-induced dilutional hyponatraemia masquerading as subarachnoid haemorrhage ." Lancet 2 (1986): 634

67. Peters RW, Hamilton J, Hamilton BP "Incidence of cardiac arrhythmias associated with mild hypokalemia induced by low-dose diuretic therapy for hypertension." South Med J 82 (1989): 966-9,

68. Kuller L, Farrier N, Caggiula A, Borhani N, Dunkle S "Relationship of diuretic therapy and serum magnesium levels among participants in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial." Am J Epidemiol 122 (1985): 1045-59

69. Seelig CB "Magnesium deficiency in two hypertensive patient groups." South Med J 83 (1990): 739-42

70. Kone B, Gimenez L, Watson AJ "Thiazide-induced hyponatremia." South Med J 79 (1986): 1456-7

71. Itescu S, Haskell LP, Tannenberg AM "Thiazide-induced clinically significant hypophosphatemia ." Clin Nephrol 27 (1987): 161-2

72. Benfield GF, Haffner C, Harris P, Stableforth DE "Dilutional hyponatraemia masquerading as subarachnoid haemorrhage in patient on hydrochlorothiazide/amiloride/timolol combined drug ." Lancet 2 (1986): 341

73. Byatt CM, Millard PH, Levin GE "Diuretics and electrolyte disturbances in 1000 consecutive geriatric admissions." J R Soc Med 83 (1990): 704-8

74. Berlin I "Prazosin, diuretics, and glucose intolerance." Ann Intern Med 119 (1993): 860

75. Jones IG, Pickens PT "Diabetes mellitus following oral diuretics." Practitioner 199 (1967): 209-10

76. Papademetriou V, Price M, Notargiacomo A, Gottdiener J, Fletcher RD, Freis ED "Effect of diuretic therapy on ventricular arrhythmias in hypertensive patients with or without left ventricular hypertrophy." Am Heart J 110 (1985): 595-9

77. Polanska AI, Baron DN "Hyponatraemia associated with hydrochlorothiazide treatment ." Br Med J 1 (1978): 175-6

78. Sebastian A "Thiazides and bone." Am J Med 109 (2000): 429-30

79. LaCroix AZ, Ott SM, Ichikawa L, Scholes D, Barlow WE "Low-dose hydrochlorothiazide and preservation of bone mineral density in older adults." Ann Intern Med 133 (2000): 516-26

80. Toussaint C, Masselink A, Gentges A, Wambach G, Bonner G "Interference of different ACE-inhibitors with the diuretic action of furosemide and hydrochlorothiazide." Klin Wochenschr 67 (1989): 1138-46

81. Chittivelu S "Hydrochlorothiazide-induced pulmonary edema and associated immunologic changes." Ann Pharmacother 33 (1999): 1010-1

82. Bernal C, Patarca R "Hydrochlorothiazide-induced pulmonary edema and associated immunologic changes." Ann Pharmacother 33 (1999): 172-4

Disclaimer: Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided is accurate, up-to-date and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. In addition, the drug information contained herein may be time sensitive and should not be utilized as a reference resource beyond the date hereof. This material does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients, or recommend therapy. This information is a reference resource designed as supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill , knowledge, and judgement of healthcare practitioners in patient care. The absence of a warning for a given drug or combination thereof in no way should be construed to indicate safety, effectiveness, or appropriateness for any given patient. Drugs.com does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of materials provided. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the substances you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist.

Hide
(web1)