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Promethazine

Pronunciation

Generic Name: Promethazine hydrochloride
Dosage Form: oral solution

Promethazine HCl Oral Solution, USP

Rx Only

Promethazine Description

Each teaspoonful 5 mL  of Promethazine HCl Oral Solution, USP contains 6.25 mg of Promethazine HCI in a flavored syrup base with a pH between 4.7 and 5.2. Alcohol 7%. The inactive ingredients present are alcohol, ascorbic acid, citric acid, D&C Yellow # 10, edetate disodium, FD&C Blue # 1, glycerin, methylparaben, natural and artificial banana flavor, natural and artificial fruit flavor, saccharin sodium, sodium benzoate, sodium citrate, and sucrose.

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Promethazine HCI is a racemic compound; the molecular formula is C17H20N2S•HCI and its molecular weight is 320.88.

Promethazine HCI, a phenothiazine derivative, is designated chemically as 10H-Phenothiazine-10-ethanamine, N,N, α-trimethyl-, monohydrochloride, (±)- with the following structural formula:

Promethazine HCl occurs as a white to faint yellow, practically odorless, crystalline powder which slowly oxidizes and turns blue on prolonged exposure to air. It is freely soluble in water and soluble in alcohol.

Promethazine - Clinical Pharmacology

Promethazine is a phenothiazine derivative which differs structurally from the antipsychotic phenothiazines by the presence of a branched side chain and no ring substitution. It is thought that this configuration is responsible for its relative lack (1/10 that of chlorpromazine) of dopamine antagonist properties.

Promethazine is an H1 receptor blocking agent. In addition to its antihistaminic action, it provides clinically useful sedative and antiemetic effects.

Promethazine is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Clinical effects are apparent within 20 minutes after oral administration and generally last four to six hours, although they may persist as long as 12 hours. Promethazine is metabolized by the liver to a variety of compounds; the sulfoxides of Promethazine and N-demethylPromethazine are the predominant metabolites appearing in the urine.

Indications and Usage for Promethazine

Promethazine HCl Oral Solution is useful for:

Perennial and seasonal allergic rhinitis.

Vasomotor rhinitis.

Allergic conjunctivitis due to inhalant allergens and foods.

Mild, uncomplicated allergic skin manifestations of urticaria and angioedema.

Amelioration of allergic reactions to blood or plasma.

Dermographism.

Anaphylactic reactions, as adjunctive therapy to epinephrine and other standard measures, after the acute manifestations have been controlled.

Preoperative, postoperative, or obstetric sedation.

Prevention and control of nausea and vomiting associated with certain types of anesthesia and surgery.

Therapy adjunctive to meperidine or other analgesics for control of post-operative pain.

Sedation in both children and adults, as well as relief of apprehension and production of light sleep from which the patient can be easily aroused.

Active and prophylactic treatment of motion sickness.

Antiemetic therapy in postoperative patients.

Contraindications

Promethazine HCl Oral Solution is contraindicated for use in pediatric patients less than two years of age.

Promethazine HCl Oral Solution is contraindicated in comatose states, and in individuals known to be hypersensitive or to have had an idiosyncratic reaction to Promethazine or to other phenothiazines.

Antihistamines are contraindicated for use in the treatment of lower respiratory tract symptoms including asthma.

Warnings

Promethazine HCl Oral Solution should not be used in pediatric patients less than 2 years of age because of the potential for fatal respiratory depression.Postmarketing cases of respiratory depression, including fatalities, have been reported with use of Promethazine in pediatric patients less than 2 years of age. A wide range of weight-based dosed of Promethazine have resulted in respiratory depression in these patients.Caution should be exercised when administering Promethazine to pediatric patients 2 years or age and older. It is recommended that the lowest effective dose of Promethazine be used in pediatric patients 2 years of age and older and concomitant administration of other drugs with respiratory depressant effects be avoided.

CNS Depression

Promethazine HCl Oral Solution may impair the mental and/or physical abilities required for the performance of potentially hazardous tasks, such as driving a vehicle or operating machinery. The impairment may be amplified by concomitant use of other central-nervous-system depressants such as alcohol, sedatives/hypnotics (including barbiturates), narcotics, narcotic analgesics, general anesthetics, tricyclic antidepressants, and tranquilizers; therefore such agents should either be eliminated or given in reduced dosage in the presence of Promethazine HCI (see PRECAUTIONS-Information for Patients and Drug Interactions).

Respiratory Depression

Promethazine HCl Oral Solution may lead to potentially fatal respiratory depression.

Use of Promethazine HCl Oral Solution in patients with compromised respiratory function (e.g., COPD, sleep apnea) should be avoided.

Lower Seizure Threshold

Promethazine HCl Oral Solution may lower seizure threshold. It should be used with caution in persons with seizure disorders or in persons who are using concomitant medications, such as narcotics or local anesthetics, which may also affect seizure threshold.

Bone-Marrow Depression

Promethazine HCl Oral Solution should be used with caution in patients with bone-marrow depression. Leukopenia and agranulocytosis have been reported, usually when Promethazine HCl Oral Solution has been used in association with other known marrow-toxic agents.

Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

A potentially fatal symptom complex sometimes referred to as Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) has been reported in association with Promethazine HCI alone or in combination with antipsychotic drugs. Clinical manifestations of NMS are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status and evidence of autonomic instability (irregular pulse or blood pressure, tachycardia, diaphoresis and cardiac dysrhythmias).

The diagnostic evaluation of patients with this syndrome is complicated. In arriving at a diagnosis, it is important to identify cases where the clinical presentation includes both serious medical illness (e.g., pneumonia, systemic infection, etc.) and untreated or inadequately treated extrapyramidal signs and symptoms (EPS). Other important considerations in the differential diagnosis include central anticholinergic toxicity, heat stroke, drug fever and primary central nervous system (CNS) pathology.

The management of NMS should include 1) immediate discontinuation of Promethazine HCI, antipsychotic drugs, if any, and other drugs not essential to concurrent therapy, 2) intensive symptomatic treatment and medical monitoring, and 3) treatment of any concomitant serious medical problems for which specific treatments are available. There is no general agreement about specific pharmacological treatment regimens for uncomplicated NMS.

Since recurrences of NMS have been reported with phenothiazines, the reintroduction of Promethazine HCI should be carefully considered.

Use in Pediatric Patients

Promethazine HCl Oral Solution is contraindicated for use in pediatric patients less than two years of age.

Caution should be exercised when administering Promethazine HCl Oral Solution to pediatric patients 2 years of age and older because of the potential for fatal respiratory depression. Respiratory depression and apnea, sometimes associated with death, are strongly associated with Promethazine products and are not directly related to individualized weight-based dosing, which might otherwise permit safe administration. Concomitant administration of Promethazine products with other respiratory depressants has an association with respiratory depression, and sometimes death, in pediatric patients.

Antiemetics are not recommended for treatment of uncomplicated vomiting in pediatric patients, and their use should be limited to prolonged vomiting of known etiology. The extrapyramidal symptoms which can occur secondary to Promethazine HCl Oral Solution administration may be confused with the CNS signs of undiagnosed primary disease, e.g., encephalopathy or Reye’s syndrome. The use of Promethazine HCl Oral Solution should be avoided in pediatric patients whose signs and symptoms may suggest Reye’s syndrome or other hepatic diseases.

Excessively large dosages of antihistamines, including Promethazine HCl Oral Solution, in pediatric patients may cause sudden death (see OVERDOSAGE). Hallucinations and convulsions have occurred with therapeutic doses and overdoses of Promethazine HCl Oral Solution in pediatric patients. In pediatric patients who are acutely ill associated with dehydration, there is an increased susceptibility to dystonias with the use of Promethazine HCI.

Other Considerations

Administration of Promethazine HCI has been associated with reported cholestatic jaundice.

Precautions

General

Drugs having anticholinergic properties should be used with caution in patients with narrow-angle glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy, stenosing peptic ulcer, pyloroduodenal obstruction, and bladder-neck obstruction.

Promethazine HCl Oral Solution should be used cautiously in persons with cardiovascular disease or with impairment of liver function.

Information for Patients

Patients should be advised to measure Promethazine HCl Oral Solution with an accurate measuring device. A household teaspoon is not an accurate measuring device and could lead to overdosage, especially when a half a teaspoon is measured. A pharmacist can recommend an appropriate measuring device and can provide instructions for measuring the correct dose.

Promethazine HCL Oral Solution may cause marked drowsiness or impair the mental and/or physical abilities required for the performance of potentially hazardous tasks, such as driving a vehicle or operating machinery. Ambulatory patients should be told to avoid engaging in such activities until it is known that they do not become drowsy or dizzy from Promethazine therapy. Pediatric patients should be supervised to avoid potential harm in bike riding or in other hazardous activities.

The concomitant use of alcohol or other central-nervous-system depressants such as sedatives/hypnotics (including barbiturates), narcotics, narcotic analgesics, general anesthetics, tricyclic antidepressants, and tranquilizers, may enhance impairment (see WARNINGS-CNS Depression and PRECAUTIONS-Drug Interactions).

Patients should be advised to report any involuntary muscle movements.

Avoid prolonged exposure to the sun.

Drug Interactions

CNS Depressants - Promethazine HCl Oral Solution may increase, prolong, or intensify the sedative action of other central-nervous-system depressants, such as alcohol, sedatives/hypnotics (including barbiturates), narcotics, narcotic analgesics, general anesthetics, tricyclic antidepressants, and tranquilizers; therefore, such agents should be avoided or administered in reduced dosage to patients receiving Promethazine HCI. When given concomitantly with Promethazine HCl Oral Solution, the dose of barbiturates should be reduced by at least one-half, and the dose of narcotics should be reduced by one-quarter to one-half. Dosage must be individualized. Excessive amounts of Promethazine HCI relative to a narcotic may lead to restlessness and motor hyperactivity in the patient with pain; these symptoms usually disappear with adequate control of the pain.

Epinephrine - Because of the potential for Promethazine HCl Oral Solution to reverse epinephrine's vasopressor effect, epinephrine should NOT be used to treat hypotension associated with Promethazine HCl Oral Solution overdose.

Anticholinergics - Concomitant use of other agents with anticholinergic properties should be undertaken with caution.

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOI) - Drug interactions, including an increased incidence of extrapyramidal effects, have been reported when some MAOI and phenothiazines are used concomitantly. This possibility should be considered with Promethazine HCl Oral Solution.

Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

The following laboratory tests may be affected in patients who are receiving therapy with Promethazine HCI:

Pregnancy Tests

Diagnostic pregnancy tests based on immunological reactions between HCG and anti-HCG may result in false-negative or false-positive interpretations.

Glucose Tolerance Test

An increase in blood glucose has been reported in patients receiving Promethazine HCI.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Long-term animal studies have not been performed to assess the carcinogenic potential of Promethazine, nor are there other animal or human data concerning carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, or impairment of fertility with this drug. Promethazine was nonmutagenic in the Salmonella test system of Ames.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects-Pregnancy Category C

Teratogenic effects have not been demonstrated in rat-feeding studies at doses of 6.25 and 12.5 mg/kg of Promethazine HCI. These doses are from approximately 2.1 to 4.2 times the maximum recommended total daily dose of Promethazine for a 50-kg subject, depending upon the indication for which the drug is prescribed. Daily doses of 25 mg/kg intraperitoneally have been found to produce fetal mortality in rats.

Specific studies to test the action of the drug on parturition, lactation, and development of the animal neonate were not done, but a general preliminary study in rats indicated no effect on these parameters. Although antihistamines have been found to produce fetal mortality in rodents, the pharmacological effects of histamine in the rodent do not parallel those in man. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of Promethazine HCl Oral Solution in pregnant women.

Promethazine HCl Oral Solution should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Nonteratogenic Effects

Promethazine HCl Oral Solution administered to a pregnant woman within two weeks of delivery may inhibit platelet aggregation in the newborn.

Labor and Delivery

Promethazine HCI Oral Solution may be used alone or as an adjunct to narcotic analgesics during labor (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Limited data suggest that use of Promethazine HCl Oral Solution during labor and delivery does not have an appreciable effect on the duration of labor or delivery and does not increase the risk of need for intervention in the newborn. The effect on later growth and development of the newborn is unknown.

(See also Nonteratogenic Effects.)

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether Promethazine HCI is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from Promethazine HCl Oral Solution, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use

Promethazine HCl Oral Solution is contraindicated for use in pediatric patients less than two years of age (see WARNINGS and Use in Pediatric Patients).

Promethazine HCl Oral Solution should be used with caution in pediatric patients 2 years of age and older (see WARNINGS-Use in Pediatric Patients).

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of Promethazine formulations did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

Sedating drugs may cause confusion and over-sedation in the elderly; elderly patients generally should be started on low doses of Promethazine HCl Oral Solution and observed closely.

Adverse Reactions

Central Nervous System - Drowsiness is the most prominent CNS effect of this drug. Sedation, somnolence, blurred vision, dizziness, confusion, disorientation, and extrapyramidal symptoms such as oculogyric crisis, torticollis, and tongue protrusion; lassitude, tinnitus, incoordination, fatigue, euphoria, nervousness, diplopia, insomnia, tremors, convulsive seizures, excitation, catatonic-like states, hysteria. Hallucinations have also been reported.

Cardiovascular-Increased or decreased blood pressure, tachycardia, bradycardia, faintness.

Dermatologic-Dermatitis, photosensitivity, urticaria.

Hematologic-Leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopenic purpura, agranulocytosis.

Gastrointestinal-Dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, jaundice.

Respiratory-Asthma, nasal stuffiness, respiratory depression (potentially fatal) and apnea (potentially fatal). (See WARNINGS-Respiratory Depression.)

Other-Angioneurotic edema. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (potentially fatal) has also been reported.(See WARNINGS-Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome.)

Paradoxical Reactions

Hyperexcitability and abnormal movements have been reported in patients following a single administration of Promethazine HCI. Consideration should be given to the discontinuation of Promethazine HCI and to the use of other drugs if these reactions occur. Respiratory depression, nightmares, delirium, and agitated behavior have also been reported in some of these patients.

Overdosage

Signs and symptoms of overdosage with Promethazine HCI range from mild depression of the central nervous system and cardiovascular system to profound hypotension, respiratory depression, unconsciousness, and sudden death. Other reported reactions include hyperreflexia, hypertonia, ataxia, athetosis, and extensor-plantar reflexes (Babinski reflex).

Stimulation may be evident, especially in children and geriatric patients. Convulsions may rarely occur. A paradoxical-type reaction has been reported in children receiving single doses of 75 mg to 125 mg orally, characterized by hyperexcitability and nightmares.

Atropine-like signs and symptoms-dry mouth, fixed, dilated pupils, flushing, as well as gastrointestinal symptoms-may occur.

Treatment

Treatment of overdosage is essentially symptomatic and supportive. Only in cases of extreme overdosage or individual sensitivity do vital signs, including respiration, pulse, blood pressure, temperature, and EKG, need to be monitored. Activated charcoal orally or by lavage may be given, or sodium or magnesium sulfate orally as a cathartic. Attention should be given to the reestablishment of adequate respiratory exchange through provision of a patent airway and institution of assisted or controlled ventilation. Diazepam may be used to control convulsions. Acidosis and electrolyte losses should be corrected. Note that any depressant effects of Promethazine HCI are not reversed by naloxone. Avoid analeptics which may cause convulsions.

The treatment of choice for resulting hypotension is administration of intravenous fluids, accompanied by repositioning if indicated. In the event that vasopressors are considered for the management of severe hypotension which does not respond to intravenous fluids and repositioning, the administration of norepinephrine or phenylephrine should be considered. EPINEPHRINE SHOULD NOT BE USED, since its use in patients with partial adrenergic blockade may further lower the blood pressure. Extrapyramidal reactions may be treated with anticholinergic antiparkinsonian agents, diphenhydramine, or barbiturates.Oxygen may also be administered.

Limited experience with dialysis indicates that it is not helpful.

Promethazine Dosage and Administration

It is important that Promethazine HCL Oral Solution is measured with an accurate measuring device (see PRECAUTIONS – Information for Patients). A household teaspoon is not an accurate measuring device and could lead to overdosage, especially when half a teaspoon is to be measured. It is strongly recommended that an accurate measuring device be used. A pharmacist can provide an appropriate device and can provide instructions for measuring the correct dose.

Promethazine HCl Oral Solution is contraindicated for children under 2 years of age (see WARNINGSBoxed Warning and Use in Pediatric Patients).

Allergy

The average oral dose is 25 mg taken before retiring; however, 12.5 mg may be taken before meals and on retiring, if necessary. Single 25 mg doses at bedtime or 6.25 to 12.5 mg taken three times daily will usually suffice.

After initiation of treatment in children or adults, dosage should be adjusted to the smallest amount adequate to relieve symptoms.

The administration of Promethazine HCI in 25 mg doses will control minor transfusion reactions of an allergic nature.

Motion Sickness

The average adult dose is 25 mg taken twice daily. The initial dose should be taken one-half to one hour before anticipated travel and be repeated 8 to 12 hours later, if necessary. On succeeding days of travel, it is recommended that 25 mg be taken on arising and again before the evening meal. For children, 12.5 to 25 mg, twice daily, may be administered.

Nausea and Vomiting

Antiemetics should not be used in vomiting of unknown etiology in children and adolescents (see WARNINGS-Use in Pediatric Patients).

The average effective dose of Promethazine HCL Oral Solution for the active therapy of nausea and vomiting in children or adults is 25 mg. When oral medication cannot be tolerated, the dose should be given parenterally (cf. Promethazine Hydrochloride Injection) or by rectal suppository. 12.5 to 25 mg doses may be repeated, as necessary, at 4 to 6 hour intervals.

For nausea and vomiting in children, the usual dose is 0.5 mg per pound of body weight, and the dose should be adjusted to the age and weight of the patient and the severity of the condition being treated.

For prophylaxis of nausea and vomiting, as during surgery and the postoperative period, the average dose is 25 mg repeated at 4 to 6 hour intervals, as necessary.

Sedation

This product relieves apprehension and induces a quiet sleep from which the patient can be easily aroused. Administration of 12.5 to 25 mg Promethazine HCl Oral Solution by the oral route will provide sedation in children. Adults usually require 25 to 50 mg for nighttime, presurgical, or obstetrical sedation.

Pre- and Postoperative Use

Promethazine HCl Oral Solution in 12.5  to 25 mg doses for children and 50 mg doses for adults the night before surgery relieves apprehension and produces a quiet sleep.

For preoperative medication, children require doses of 0.5 mg per pound of body weight in combination with an appropriately reduced dose of narcotic or barbiturate and the appropriate dose of an atropine-like drug.

Usual adult dosage is 50 mg Promethazine HCl Oral Solution with an appropriately reduced dose of narcotic or barbiturate and the required amount of a belladonna alkaloid. Postoperative sedation and adjunctive use with analgesics may be obtained by the administration of 12.5 to 25 mg in children and 25  to 50 mg doses in adults. Promethazine HCL Oral Solution is contraindicated for children under 2 years of age.

How is Promethazine Supplied

Promethazine HCl Oral Solution, USP 6.25 mg/5 mL is a clear, green colored solution.

Available as:

4 fl oz (118 mL)   NDC 65162-678-86

16 fl oz (473 mL) NDC 65162-678-90

KEEP TIGHTLY CLOSED

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].

PROTECT FROM LIGHT

Dispense in tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP, with a child-resistant closure.

Rx Only

Manufactured by:

Amneal Pharmaceuticals

Branchburg, NJ 08876

Distributed by:

Amneal Pharmaceuticals

Glasgow, KY 42141

Rev. 08-2009

PACKAGE LABEL.PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL

Promethazine HYDROCHLORIDE 
Promethazine solution
Product Information
Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL Item Code (Source) NDC:65162-678
Route of Administration ORAL DEA Schedule     
Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
Ingredient Name Basis of Strength Strength
Promethazine HYDROCHLORIDE (Promethazine) Promethazine HYDROCHLORIDE 6.25 mg  in 5 mL
Inactive Ingredients
Ingredient Name Strength
ALCOHOL  
ASCORBIC ACID  
CITRIC ACID MONOHYDRATE  
D&C YELLOW NO. 10  
EDETATE DISODIUM  
FD&C BLUE NO. 1  
GLYCERIN  
METHYLPARABEN  
SACCHARIN SODIUM  
SODIUM BENZOATE  
SODIUM CITRATE  
SUCROSE  
Product Characteristics
Color GREEN (clear) Score     
Shape Size
Flavor BANANA Imprint Code
Contains         
Packaging
# Item Code Package Description
1 NDC:65162-678-86 118 mL in 1 BOTTLE
2 NDC:65162-678-90 473 mL in 1 BOTTLE
Marketing Information
Marketing Category Application Number or Monograph Citation Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
ANDA ANDA040882 12/30/2009
Labeler - Amneal Pharmaceuticals (123797875)
Registrant - Amneal Pharmaceuticals (123797875)
Establishment
Name Address ID/FEI Operations
Amneal Pharmaceuticals 963900878 ANALYSIS, API MANUFACTURE, MANUFACTURE, PACK
Revised: 02/2012
 
Amneal Pharmaceuticals
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