Dosage Form: injection, powder, for solution
Oxacillin for Injection, USP
For Intravenous Injection Only
In ADD-Vantage® Drug Delivery System
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Oxacillin for Injection and other antibacterial drugs, Oxacillin for Injection should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.
Oxacillin Injection Description
Oxacillin for Injection, USP ADD-Vantage® is a semisynthetic antibiotic substance derived from 6-amino-penicillanic acid intended for intravenous administration only. It is the sodium salt in a parenteral dosage form. The sodium content is 63.5 mg (2.8 mEq) per gram of oxacillin. The product is buffered with 19 mg dibasic sodium phosphate per gram of oxacillin.
Oxacillin Sodium, C19H18N3NaO5S • H2O, MW=441.43, is designated as 4-Thia-1-azabicyclo [3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid, 3,3-dimethyl-6-[[(5-methyl-3-phenyl-4-isoxazolyl) carbonyl] amino]-7-oxo-,monosodium salt, monohydrate, [2S(2α, 5α, 6β)] and has the following structural formula:
Oxacillin Injection - Clinical Pharmacology
Intravenous administration provides peak serum levels approximately 5 minutes after the injection is completed. Slow I.V. administration of 500 mg gives a peak serum level of 43 µg/mL after 5 minutes with a half-life of 20-30 minutes.
The penicillinase-resistant penicillins bind to serum protein, mainly albumin. The degree of protein binding reported for oxacillin is 94.2% ± 2.1%. Reported values vary with the method of study and the investigator.
The penicillinase-resistant penicillins vary in the extent to which they are distributed in the body fluids. With normal doses, insignificant concentrations are found in the cerebrospinal fluid and aqueous humor. All the drugs in this class are found in therapeutic concentrations in the pleural, bile, and amniotic fluids.
The penicillinase-resistant penicillins are rapidly excreted primarily as unchanged drug in the urine by glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. The elimination half-life for oxacillin is about 0.5 hours. Nonrenal elimination includes hepatic inactivation and excretion in bile.
Probenecid blocks the renal tubular secretion of penicillins. Therefore, the concurrent administration of probenecid prolongs the elimination of oxacillin and, consequently, increases the serum concentration.
Penicillinase-resistant penicillins exert a bactericidal action against penicillin-susceptible microorganisms during the state of active multiplication. All penicillins inhibit the biosynthesis of the bacterial cell wall.
The drugs in this class are highly resistant to inactivation by staphylococcal penicillinase and are active against penicillinase-producing and nonpenicillinase-producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus.
The penicillinase-resistant penicillins are active in vitro against a variety of other bacteria.
Susceptibility Plate Testing
Quantitative methods of susceptibility testing that require measurement of zone diameters or minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC’s) give the most precise estimates of antibiotic susceptibility. One such procedure has been recommended for use with discs to test susceptibility to this class of drugs. Interpretations correlate diameters on the disc test with MIC values. A penicillinase-resistant class disc may be used to determine microbial susceptibility to cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, methicillin, nafcillin, and oxacillin. With this procedure, employing a 5 microgram methicillin sodium disc, a report from the laboratory of “susceptible” (zone of at least 14 mm) indicates that the infecting organism is likely to respond to therapy. A report of “resistant” (zone of less than 10 mm) indicates that the infecting organism is not likely to respond to therapy. A report of “intermediate susceptibility” (zone of 10 to 13 mm) suggests that the organism might be susceptible if high doses of the antibiotic are used, or if the infection is confined to tissues and fluids (e.g. urine), in which high antibiotic levels are attained.
In general, all staphylococci should be tested against the penicillin G disc and against the methicillin disc. Routine methods of antibiotic susceptibility testing may fail to detect strains of organisms resistant to the penicillinase-resistant penicillins. For this reason, the use of large inocula and 48-hour incubation periods may be necessary to obtain accurate susceptibility studies with these antibiotics. Bacterial strains which are resistant to one of the penicillinase-resistant penicillins should be considered resistant to all of the drugs in the class.
Oxacillin Sodium, with normal doses, has insignificant concentrations in the cerebrospinal and ascitic fluids. It is found in therapeutic concentrations in the pleural, bile, and amniotic fluids. Oxacillin Sodium is rapidly excreted as unchanged drug in the urine by glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion.
Oxacillin Sodium binds to serum protein, mainly albumin. The degree of protein binding reported varies with the method of study and the investigator, but generally has been found to be 94.2 ± 2.1%.
Intravenous injection gives a peak serum level about 5 minutes after the injection is completed. Slow IV dosing with 500 mg gives a 5 minute peak of 43 mcg/mL with a half-life of 20 to 30 minutes.
Indications and Usage for Oxacillin Injection
Oxacillin is indicated in the treatment of infections caused by penicillinase producing staphylococci which have demonstrated susceptibility to the drug. Cultures and susceptibility tests should be performed initially to determine the causative organism and its susceptibility to the drug. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Susceptibility Plate Testing).
Oxacillin may be used to initiate therapy in suspected cases of resistant staphylococcal infections prior to the availability of susceptibility test results. Oxacillin should not be used in infections caused by organisms susceptible to penicillin G. If the susceptibility tests indicate that the infection is due to an organism other than a resistant Staphylococcus, therapy should not be continued with oxacillin.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Oxacillin for Injection, USP and other antibacterial drugs, Oxacillin for Injection, USP should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
A history of a hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reaction to any penicillin is a contraindication.
SERIOUS AND OCCASIONALLY FATAL HYPERSENSITIVITY (ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK WITH COLLAPSE) REACTIONS HAVE OCCURRED IN PATIENTS RECEIVING PENICILLIN. THE INCIDENCE OF ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK IN ALL PENICILLIN-TREATED PATIENTS IS BETWEEN 0.015 AND 0.04 PERCENT. ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK RESULTING IN DEATH HAS OCCURRED IN APPROXIMATELY 0.002 PERCENT OF THE PATIENTS TREATED. ALTHOUGH ANAPHYLAXIS IS MORE FREQUENT FOLLOWING PARENTERAL ADMINISTRATION, IT HAS OCCURRED IN PATIENTS RECEIVING ORAL PENICILLINS.
WHEN PENICILLIN THERAPY IS INDICATED, IT SHOULD BE INITIATED ONLY AFTER A COMPREHENSIVE PATIENT DRUG AND ALLERGY HISTORY HAS BEEN OBTAINED. IF AN ALLERGIC REACTION OCCURS, THE DRUG SHOULD BE DISCONTINUED AND THE PATIENT SHOULD RECEIVE SUPPORTIVE TREATMENT, E.G., ARTIFICIAL MAINTENANCE OF VENTILATION, PRESSOR AMINES, ANTIHISTAMINES, AND CORTICOSTEROIDS. INDIVIDUALS WITH A HISTORY OF PENICILLIN HYPERSENSITIVITY MAY ALSO EXPERIENCE ALLERGIC REACTIONS WHEN TREATED WITH A CEPHALOSPORIN.
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including oxacillin for injection, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
Oxacillin should generally not be administered to patients with a history of sensitivity to any penicillin.
Penicillin should be used with caution in individuals with histories of significant allergies and/or asthma. Whenever allergic reactions occur, penicillin should be withdrawn unless, in the opinion of the physician, the condition being treated is life-threatening and amenable only to penicillin therapy.
The oral route of administration should not be relied upon in patients with severe illness, or with nausea, vomiting, gastric dilation, cardiospasm, or intestinal hypermotility. Occasionally patients will not absorb therapeutic amounts of orally administered penicillin.
The use of antibiotics may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms. If new infections due to bacteria or fungi occur, the drug should be discontinued and appropriate measures taken.
Prescribing Oxacillin for Injection in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
Information for Patients
Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including Oxacillin for Injection should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When Oxacillin for Injection is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may: (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment, and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Oxacillin for Injection or other antibacterial drugs in the future.
Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.
Bacteriologic studies to determine the causative organisms and their susceptibility to oxacillin should be performed (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Microbiology). In the treatment of suspected staphylococcal infections, therapy should be changed to another active agent if culture tests fail to demonstrate the presence of staphylococci.
Periodic assessment of organ system function including renal, hepatic, and hematopoietic should be made during prolonged therapy with oxacillin.
Blood cultures, white blood cell, and differential cell counts should be obtained prior to initiation of therapy and at least weekly during therapy with oxacillin.
Periodic urinalysis, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine determinations should be performed during therapy with oxacillin and dosage alterations should be considered if these values become elevated. If any impairment of renal function is suspected or known to exist, a reduction in the total dosage should be considered and blood levels monitored to avoid possible neurotoxic reactions.
AST (SGOT) and ALT (SGPT) values should be obtained periodically during therapy to monitor for possible liver function abnormalities.
Tetracycline, a bacteriostatic antibiotic, may antagonize the bactericidal effect of penicillin and concurrent use of these drugs should be avoided.
Oxacillin blood levels may be prolonged by concurrent administration of probenecid which blocks the renal tubular secretion of penicillins.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
No long-term animal studies have been conducted with these drugs.
Studies on reproduction (nafcillin) in rats and rabbits reveal no fetal or maternal abnormalities before conception and continuously through weaning (one generation).
Reproduction studies performed in the mouse, rat, and rabbit have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to the penicillinase-resistant penicillins. Human experience with the penicillins during pregnancy has not shown any positive evidence of adverse effects on the fetus. There are, however, no adequate or well-controlled studies in pregnant women showing conclusively that harmful effects of these drugs on the fetus can be excluded. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
Penicillins are excreted in breast milk. Caution should be exercised when penicillins are administered to a nursing woman.
Because of incompletely developed renal function in pediatric patients, oxacillin may not be completely excreted, with abnormally high blood levels resulting. Frequent blood levels are advisable in this group with dosage adjustments when necessary. All pediatric patients treated with penicillins should be monitored closely for clinical and laboratory evidence of toxic or adverse effects. Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
Clinical studies of oxacillin did not include sufficient number of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.
Oxacillin for Injection contains 63.5 mg (2.8 mEq) of sodium per gram of oxacillin. At the usual recommended doses, patients would receive between 63.5 and 381 mg/day (2.8 and 16.8 mEq) of sodium. The geriatric population may respond with a blunted natriuresis to salt loading. This may be clinically important with regard to such diseases as congestive heart failure.
Body as a Whole
The reported incidence of allergic reactions to penicillin ranges from 0.7 to 10 percent (See WARNINGS). Sensitization is usually the result of treatment but some individuals have had immediate reactions to penicillin when first treated. In such cases, it is thought that the patients may have had prior exposure to the drug via trace amounts present in milk and vaccines.
Two types of allergic reactions to penicillin are noted clinically, immediate and delayed.
Immediate reactions usually occur within 20 minutes of administration and range in severity from urticaria and pruritus to angioneurotic edema, laryngospasm, bronchospasm, hypotension, vascular collapse, and death. Such immediate anaphylactic reactions are very rare (See WARNINGS) and usually occur after parenteral therapy but have occurred in patients receiving oral therapy. Another type of immediate reaction, an accelerated reaction, may occur between 20 minutes and 48 hours after administration and may include urticaria, pruritus, and fever. Although laryngeal edema, laryngospasm, and hypotension occasionally occur, fatality is uncommon.
Delayed allergic reactions to penicillin therapy usually occur after 48 hours and sometimes as late as 2 to 4 weeks after initiation of therapy. Manifestations of this type of reaction include serum sickness-like symptoms (i.e., fever, malaise, urticaria, myalgia, arthralgia, abdominal pain) and various skin rashes. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomatitis, black or hairy tongue, and other symptoms of gastrointestinal irritation may occur, especially during oral penicillin therapy.
Nervous System Reactions
Neurotoxic reactions similar to those observed with penicillin G may occur with large intravenous doses of oxacillin especially in patients with renal insufficiency.
Renal tubular damage and interstitial nephritis have been associated infrequently with the administration of oxacillin. Manifestations of this reaction may include rash, fever, eosinophilia, hematuria, proteinuria, and renal insufficiency.
Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with the use of oxacillin. The onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibiotic treatment (see WARNINGS).
Agranulocytosis, neutropenia, and bone marrow depression have been associated with the use of methicillin sodium, nafcillin, oxacillin, and cloxacillin. Hepatotoxicity, characterized by fever, nausea, and vomiting associated with abnormal liver function tests, mainly elevated SGOT levels, has been associated with the use of oxacillin and cloxacillin.
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE EVENTS, contact FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov.
The signs and symptoms of oxacillin overdosage are those described in the ADVERSE REACTIONS section. If signs or symptoms occur, discontinue use of the medication, treat symptomatically, and institute appropriate supportive measures.
Oxacillin Injection Dosage and Administration
The penicillinase-resistant penicillins are available for oral administration and for intramuscular and intravenous injection. The sodium salts of methicillin, oxacillin, and nafcillin may be administered parenterally and the sodium salts of cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, oxacillin, and nafcillin are available for oral use.
Bacteriologic studies to determine the causative organisms and their susceptibility to oxacillin should always be performed. Duration of therapy varies with the type and severity of infection as well as the overall condition of the patient, therefore it should be determined by the clinical and bacteriological response of the patient. In severe staphylococcal infections, therapy with oxacillin should be continued for at least 14 days. Therapy should be continued for at least 48 hours after the patient has become afebrile, asymptomatic, and cultures are negative. The treatment of endocarditis and osteomyelitis may require a longer term of therapy.
Concurrent administration of oxacillin and probenecid increases and prolongs serum penicillin levels. Probenecid decreases the apparent volume of distribution and slows the rate of excretion by competitively inhibiting renal tubular secretion of penicillin. Penicillin-probenecid therapy is generally limited to those infections where very high serum levels of penicillin are necessary.
Oral preparations of the penicillinase-resistant penicillins should not be used as initial therapy in serious, life-threatening infections (See PRECAUTIONS: General). Oral therapy with the penicillinase-resistant penicillins may be used to follow-up the previous use of a parenteral agent as soon as the clinical condition warrants. With intravenous administration, particularly in elderly patients, care should be taken because of the possibility of thrombophlebitis.
Recommended Dosages for Oxacillin Sodium for Injection, USP
In ADD-Vantage® System: For Intravenous Use Only
Adults: 1 to 6 grams per 24-hour period.
NOTE: For doses smaller than 1 gram use the conventional vial. Insert for conventional vial lists dosages for infants and children.
Directions for use
Oxacillin for Injection Vials in the ADD-Vantage® Drug Delivery System are for intravenous use only and are to be used with ADDVantage® diluent containers of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP, 50 mL and 100 mL, or 5% Dextrose Injection, USP, 50 mL and 100 mL.
Reconstitute ADD-Vantage® vials as directed in the INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE section.
Only 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP, and 5% Dextrose Injection, USP, are available for use in the ADD-Vantage® Delivery System for intravenous infusion of Oxacillin Sodium. The concentration of the antibiotic should fall within the range specified. The drug concentration and the rate and volume of the infusion should be adjusted so that the total dose of oxacillin is administered before the drug loses its stability in the solution in use.
If another agent is used in conjunction with oxacillin therapy, it should not be physically mixed with oxacillin but should be administered separately.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE
To Open Diluent Container:
Peel overwrap from the corner and remove container. Some opacity of the plastic due to moisture absorption during the sterilization process may be observed. This is normal and does not affect the solution quality or safety. The opacity will diminish gradually.
To Assemble Vial and Flexible Diluent Container:
(Use Aseptic Technique)
- Remove the protective covers from the top of the vial and the vial port on the diluent container as follows:
a. To remove the breakaway vial cap, swing the pull ring over the top of the vial and pull down far enough to start the opening (SEE FIGURE 1), then pull straight up to remove the cap. (SEE FIGURE 2.)
NOTE: Do not access vial with syringe.
b. To remove the vial port cover, grasp the tab on the pull ring, pull up to break the three tie strings, then pull back to remove the cover. (SEE FIGURE 3.)
- Screw the vial into the vial port until it will go no further. THE VIAL MUST BE SCREWED IN TIGHTLY TO ASSURE A SEAL. This occurs approximately 1/2 turn (180°) after the first audible click. (SEE FIGURE 4.) The clicking sound does not assure a seal; the vial must be turned as far as it will go. NOTE: Once vial is seated, do not attempt to remove. (SEE FIGURE 4.)
- Recheck the vial to assure that it is tight by trying to turn it further in the direction of assembly.
- Label appropriately.
To Prepare Admixture:
- Squeeze the bottom of the diluent container gently to inflate the portion of the container surrounding the end of the drug vial.
- With the other hand, push the drug vial down into the container telescoping the walls of the container. Grasp the inner cap of the vial through the walls of the container. (SEE FIGURE 5.)
- Pull the inner cap from the drug vial. (SEE FIGURE 6.) Verify that the rubber stopper has been pulled out, allowing the drug and diluent to mix.
- Mix container contents thoroughly and use within the specified time.
Preparation for Administration:
(Use Aseptic Technique)
- Confirm the activation and admixture of vial contents.
- Check for leaks by squeezing container firmly. If leaks are found, discard unit as sterility may be impaired.
- Close flow control clamp of administration set.
- Remove cover from outlet port at bottom of container.
- Insert piercing pin of administration set into port with a twisting motion until the pin is firmly seated.
NOTE: See full directions on administration set carton.
- Lift the free end of the hanger loop on the bottom of the vial, breaking the two tie strings. Bend the loop outward to lock it in the upright position, then suspend container from hanger.
- Squeeze and release drip chamber to establish proper fluid level in chamber.
- Open flow control clamp and clear air from set. Close clamp.
- Attach set to venipuncture device. If device is not indwelling, prime and make venipuncture.
- Regulate rate of administration with flow control clamp.
WARNING: Do not use flexible container in series connections.
At concentrations ranging from 10 to 40 mg/mL in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP, Oxacillin will have utility times of 4 days at room temperature (25°C).
In 5% Dextrose Injection, USP, at concentrations from 10 to 40 mg/mL Oxacillin will have utility times of 6 hours at room temperature (25°C).
How is Oxacillin Injection Supplied
Oxacillin for Injection, USP ADD-Vantage® for intravenous use contains oxacillin sodium equivalent to 1 or 2 grams oxacillin per vial.
NDC 0781-9110-92 - 1 gram ADD-Vantage® Vial, packed in 10s
NDC 0781-9112-92 - 2 gram ADD-Vantage® Vial, packed in 10s
NDC 0781-9110-92 Rx ONLY
for Injection, USP
Case Qty.: 10 ADD-Vantage® Vials
Buffered – for IV use
N+ and NOVAPLUS are registered
trademarks of Novation, LLC
Oxacillin Injection, powder, for solution
Oxacillin Injection, powder, for solution
|Labeler - Sandoz Inc (110342024)|
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- Other brands: Bactocill