Lumigan® (bimatoprost ophthalmic solution) 0.01% is indicated for the reduction of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.
Lumigan Dosage and Administration
The recommended dosage is one drop in the affected eye(s) once daily in the evening. Lumigan® (bimatoprost ophthalmic solution) 0.01% should not be administered more than once daily since it has been shown that more frequent administration of prostaglandin analogs may decrease the intraocular pressure lowering effect.
Reduction of the intraocular pressure starts approximately 4 hours after the first administration with maximum effect reached within approximately 8 to 12 hours.
Lumigan® 0.01% may be used concomitantly with other topical ophthalmic drug products to lower intraocular pressure. If more than one topical ophthalmic drug is being used, the drugs should be administered at least five (5) minutes apart.
Warnings and Precautions
Bimatoprost ophthalmic solution has been reported to cause changes to pigmented tissues. The most frequently reported changes have been increased pigmentation of the iris, periorbital tissue (eyelid) and eyelashes. Pigmentation is expected to increase as long as bimatoprost is administered. The pigmentation change is due to increased melanin content in the melanocytes rather than to an increase in the number of melanocytes. After discontinuation of bimatoprost, pigmentation of the iris is likely to be permanent, while pigmentation of the periorbital tissue and eyelash changes have been reported to be reversible in some patients. Patients who receive treatment should be informed of the possibility of increased pigmentation. The long term effects of increased pigmentation are not known.
Iris color change may not be noticeable for several months to years. Typically, the brown pigmentation around the pupil spreads concentrically towards the periphery of the iris and the entire iris or parts of the iris become more brownish. Neither nevi nor freckles of the iris appear to be affected by treatment. While treatment with Lumigan® (bimatoprost ophthalmic solution) 0.01% can be continued in patients who develop noticeably increased iris pigmentation, these patients should be examined regularly [see Patient Counseling Information (17.1)].
Lumigan® 0.01% may gradually change eyelashes and vellus hair in the treated eye. These changes include increased length, thickness, and number of lashes. Eyelash changes are usually reversible upon discontinuation of treatment.
Prostaglandin analogs, including bimatoprost, have been reported to cause intraocular inflammation. In addition, because these products may exacerbate inflammation, caution should be used in patients with active intraocular inflammation (e.g., uveitis).
Macular edema, including cystoid macular edema, has been reported during treatment with bimatoprost ophthalmic solution. Lumigan® 0.01% should be used with caution in aphakic patients, in pseudophakic patients with a torn posterior lens capsule, or in patients with known risk factors for macular edema.
There have been reports of bacterial keratitis associated with the use of multiple-dose containers of topical ophthalmic products. These containers had been inadvertently contaminated by patients who, in most cases, had a concurrent corneal disease or a disruption of the ocular epithelial surface [see Patient Counseling Information (17.3)].
Clinical Studies Experience
Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
In a 12-month clinical study with bimatoprost ophthalmic solutions 0.01%, the most common adverse reaction was conjunctival hyperemia (31%). Approximately 1.6% of patients discontinued therapy due to conjunctival hyperemia. Other adverse drug reactions (reported in 1 to 4% of patients) with Lumigan® 0.01% in this study included conjunctival edema, conjunctival hemorrhage, eye irritation, eye pain, eye pruritus, erythema of eyelid, eyelids pruritus, growth of eyelashes, hypertrichosis, instillation site irritation, punctate keratitis, skin hyperpigmentation, vision blurred, and visual acuity reduced.
The following reaction has been identified during postmarketing use of Lumigan® 0.01% in clinical practice. Because it was reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, estimates of frequency cannot be made. The reaction, which has been chosen for inclusion due to either its seriousness, frequency of reporting, possible causal connection to Lumigan® 0.01%, or a combination of these factors, includes headache.
In postmarketing use with prostaglandin analogs, periorbital and lid changes including deepening of the eyelid sulcus have been observed.
USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Pregnancy Category C
Teratogenic effects: In embryo/fetal developmental studies in pregnant mice and rats, abortion was observed at oral doses of bimatoprost which achieved at least 33 or 97 times, respectively, the maximum intended human exposure based on blood AUC levels.
At doses at least 41 times the maximum intended human exposure based on blood AUC levels, the gestation length was reduced in the dams, the incidence of dead fetuses, late resorptions, peri- and postnatal pup mortality was increased, and pup body weights were reduced.
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of Lumigan® (bimatoprost ophthalmic solution) 0.01% administration in pregnant women. Because animal reproductive studies are not always predictive of human response Lumigan® 0.01% should be administered during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
It is not known whether Lumigan® 0.01% is excreted in human milk, although in animal studies, bimatoprost has been shown to be excreted in breast milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Lumigan® 0.01% is administered to a nursing woman.
Use in pediatric patients below the age of 16 years is not recommended because of potential safety concerns related to increased pigmentation following long-term chronic use.
No overall clinical differences in safety or effectiveness have been observed between elderly and other adult patients.
No information is available on overdosage in humans. If overdose with Lumigan® (bimatoprost ophthalmic solution) 0.01% occurs, treatment should be symptomatic.
In oral (by gavage) mouse and rat studies, doses up to 100 mg/kg/day did not produce any toxicity. This dose expressed as mg/m2 is at least 210 times higher than the accidental dose of one bottle of Lumigan® 0.01% for a 10 kg child.
Lumigan® (bimatoprost ophthalmic solution) 0.01% is a synthetic prostamide analog with ocular hypotensive activity. Its chemical name is (Z)-7-[(1R,2R,3R,5S)-3,5-Dihydroxy-2-[(1E,3S)-3-hydroxy-5-phenyl-1-pentenyl]cyclopentyl]-5-N-ethylheptenamide, and its molecular weight is 415.58. Its molecular formula is C25H37NO4. Its chemical structure is:
Bimatoprost is a powder, which is very soluble in ethyl alcohol and methyl alcohol and slightly soluble in water. Lumigan® 0.01% is a clear, isotonic, colorless, sterile ophthalmic solution with an osmolality of approximately 290 mOsmol/kg.
Lumigan® 0.01% contains Active: bimatoprost 0.1 mg/mL; Inactives: benzalkonium chloride 0.2 mg/mL; sodium chloride; sodium phosphate, dibasic; citric acid; and purified water. Sodium hydroxide and/or hydrochloric acid may be added to adjust pH. The pH during its shelf life ranges from 6.8-7.8.
Lumigan - Clinical Pharmacology
Mechanism of Action
Bimatoprost, a prostaglandin analog, is a synthetic structural analog of prostaglandin with ocular hypotensive activity. It selectively mimics the effects of naturally occurring substances, prostamides. Bimatoprost is believed to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) in humans by increasing outflow of aqueous humor through both the trabecular meshwork and uveoscleral routes. Elevated IOP presents a major risk factor for glaucomatous field loss. The higher the level of IOP, the greater the likelihood of optic nerve damage and visual field loss.
Absorption: After one drop of bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% was administered once daily to both eyes of 15 healthy subjects for two weeks, blood concentrations peaked within 10 minutes after dosing and were below the lower limit of detection (0.025 ng/mL) in most subjects within 1.5 hours after dosing. Mean Cmax and AUC0-24hr values were similar on days 7 and 14 at approximately 0.08 ng/mL and 0.09 ng•hr/mL, respectively, indicating that steady state was reached during the first week of ocular dosing. There was no significant systemic drug accumulation over time.
Distribution: Bimatoprost is moderately distributed into body tissues with a steady-state volume of distribution of 0.67 L/kg. In human blood, bimatoprost resides mainly in the plasma. Approximately 12% of bimatoprost remains unbound in human plasma.
Metabolism: Bimatoprost is the major circulating species in the blood once it reaches the systemic circulation following ocular dosing. Bimatoprost then undergoes oxidation, N-deethylation and glucuronidation to form a diverse variety of metabolites.
Elimination: Following an intravenous dose of radiolabeled bimatoprost (3.12 mcg/kg) to six healthy subjects, the maximum blood concentration of unchanged drug was 12.2 ng/mL and decreased rapidly with an elimination half-life of approximately 45 minutes. The total blood clearance of bimatoprost was 1.5 L/hr/kg. Up to 67% of the administered dose was excreted in the urine while 25% of the dose was recovered in the feces.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Bimatoprost was not carcinogenic in either mice or rats when administered by oral gavage at doses of up to 2 mg/kg/day and 1 mg/kg/day respectively (at least 192 and 291 times the recommended human exposure based on blood AUC levels respectively) for 104 weeks.
Bimatoprost was not mutagenic or clastogenic in the Ames test, in the mouse lymphoma test, or in the in vivo mouse micronucleus tests.
Bimatoprost did not impair fertility in male or female rats up to doses of 0.6 mg/kg/day (at least 103 times the recommended human exposure based on blood AUC levels).
In a 12-month clinical study of patients with open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension with an average baseline IOP of 23.5 mmHg, the IOP-lowering effect of Lumigan® 0.01% once daily (in the evening) was up to 7.5 mmHg.
How Supplied/Storage and Handling
Lumigan® (bimatoprost ophthalmic solution) 0.01% is supplied sterile in opaque white low density polyethylene ophthalmic dispenser bottles and tips with turquoise polystyrene caps in the following sizes:
2.5 mL fill in a 5 mL container - NDC 0023-3205-03
5 mL fill in a 10 mL container - NDC 0023-3205-05
7.5 mL fill in a 10 mL container - NDC 0023-3205-08
Patient Counseling Information
Potential for Pigmentation
Advise patients about the potential for increased brown pigmentation of the iris, which may be permanent. Also inform patients about the possibility of eyelid skin darkening, which may be reversible after discontinuation of Lumigan® (bimatoprost ophthalmic solution) 0.01%.
Potential for Eyelash Changes
Inform patients of the possibility of eyelash and vellus hair changes in the treated eye during treatment with Lumigan® 0.01%. These changes may result in a disparity between eyes in length, thickness, pigmentation, number of eyelashes or vellus hairs, and/or direction of eyelash growth. Eyelash changes are usually reversible upon discontinuation of treatment.
Handling the Container
Instruct patients to avoid allowing the tip of the dispensing container to contact the eye, surrounding structures, fingers, or any other surface in order to avoid contamination of the solution by common bacteria known to cause ocular infections. Serious damage to the eye and subsequent loss of vision may result from using contaminated solutions.
When to Seek Physician Advice
Advise patients that if they develop an intercurrent ocular condition (e.g., trauma or infection), have ocular surgery, or develop any ocular reactions, particularly conjunctivitis and eyelid reactions, they should immediately seek their physician's advice concerning the continued use of Lumigan® 0.01%.
Use with Contact Lenses
Advise patients that Lumigan® 0.01% contains benzalkonium chloride, which may be absorbed by soft contact lenses. Contact lenses should be removed prior to instillation of Lumigan® 0.01% and may be reinserted 15 minutes following its administration.
Use with Other Ophthalmic Drugs
Advise patients that if more than one topical ophthalmic drug is being used, the drugs should be administered at least five (5) minutes between applications.
© 2014 Allergan, Inc.
Irvine, CA 92612
® marks owned by Allergan, Inc.
Patented. See: www.allergan.com/products/patent_notices
Made in the U.S.A.
bimatoprost solution/ drops
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