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Cefotetan and Dextrose

Dosage Form: injection, solution

CEFOTETAN FOR INJECTION USP
AND DEXTROSE INJECTION USP

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP and other antibacterial drugs, Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.

Cefotetan and Dextrose Description

Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP in the DUPLEX® container is supplied as a sterile, nonpyrogenic, single use packaged combination of cefotetan disodium and dextrose injection (diluent) in the DUPLEX® sterile container. The DUPLEX® container is a flexible dual chamber container.

The drug chamber is filled with cefotetan disodium, a sterile, semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, beta-lactamase resistant, cephalosporin (cephamycin) antibiotic for intravenous administration. Cefotetan disodium is the disodium salt of [6R - (6alpha,7alpha)] - 7 - [[[4 - (2 - amino - 1 - carboxy - 2 - oxoethylidene) - 1,3 - dithietan - 2 - yl]carbonyl]amino] - 7 - methoxy - 3 - [[(1 - methyl - 1H - tetrazol - 5 - yl)thio]methyl] - 8 - oxo - 5 - thia - 1 - azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct - 2 - ene - 2 - carboxylic acid.

Cefotetan disodium has the following structural formula:

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The molecular formula of cefotetan disodium is C17H15N7Na2O8S4 with a molecular weight of 619.59.

Cefotetan disodium is supplied as a dry powder form equivalent to either 1 g or 2 g of cefotetan. Cefotetan disodium is a white to pale yellow powder which is readily soluble in dextrose injection diluent provided in the DUPLEX® container. The pH of freshly reconstituted solution is between 4 to 6.5. The color of reconstituted solutions ranges from colorless to yellow depending on the length of storage and concentration. Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP contains approximately 80 mg (3.5 mEq) of sodium per gram of cefotetan activity.

The diluent chamber contains dextrose injection. The concentration of Hydrous Dextrose in Water for Injection USP has been adjusted to render the reconstituted drug product iso-osmotic. Dextrose USP has been added to adjust the osmolality to approximately 290 mOsmol/kg (approximately 1.79 g [3.58% w/v] and 1.04 g [2.08% w/v] to the 1 g and 2 g dosages, respectively). Dextrose injection USP is sterile, nonpyrogenic, and contains no bacteriostatic or antimicrobial agents.

Hydrous Dextrose USP has the following structural (molecular) formula:

The molecular weight of Hydrous Dextrose USP is 198.17.

After removing the peelable foil strip, activating the seals, and thoroughly mixing, the reconstituted drug product is intended for single intravenous use. When reconstituted according to instructions in the product labeling, the approximate osmolality of the reconstituted solution of Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP is about 290 mOsmol/kg.

The DUPLEX® Container is Latex-free, PVC-free, and Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP)-free.

The DUPLEX® dual chamber container is made from a specially formulated material. The product (diluent and drug) contact layer is a mixture of thermoplastic rubber and a polypropylene ethylene copolymer that contains no plasticizers. The safety of the container system is supported by USP biological evaluation procedures.

Cefotetan and Dextrose - Clinical Pharmacology

High plasma levels of cefotetan are attained after intravenous administration of single doses to normal volunteers.

PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS AFTER 1 GRAM IV* DOSE
Mean Plasma Concentration (mcg/mL)
Time After Injection
Route 15 min 30 min 1h 2h 4h 8h 12h
*
30-minute infusion
 IV  92  158  103  72  42  18  9
PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS AFTER 2 GRAM IV* DOSE
Mean Plasma Concentration (mcg/mL)
Time After Injection
Route 5 min 10 min 1h 3h 5h 9h 12h
*
Injected over 3 minutes
Concentrations estimated from regression line
 IV  237  223  135  74  48  22  12

The plasma elimination half-life of cefotetan is 3 to 4.6 hours after intravenous administration.

Repeated administration of Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP does not result in accumulation of the drug in normal subjects.

Cefotetan is 88% plasma protein bound.

No active metabolites of cefotetan have been detected; however, small amounts (less than 7%) of cefotetan in plasma and urine may be converted to its tautomer, which has antimicrobial activity similar to the parent drug.

In normal patients, from 51% to 81% of an administered dose of cefotetan is excreted unchanged by the kidneys over a 24 hour period, which results in high and prolonged urinary concentrations. Following intravenous doses of 1 gram and 2 grams, urinary concentrations are highest during the first hour and reach concentrations of approximately 1700 and 3500 mcg/mL, respectively.

In volunteers with reduced renal function, the plasma half-life of cefotetan is prolonged. The mean terminal half-life increases with declining renal function, from approximately 4 hours in volunteers with normal renal function to about 10 hours in those with moderate renal impairment. There is a linear correlation between the systemic clearance of cefotetan and creatinine clearance. When renal function is impaired, a reduced dosing schedule based on creatinine clearance must be used (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

In pharmacokinetics studies of eight elderly patients (greater than 65 years) with normal renal function and six healthy volunteers (aged 25 to 28 years), mean (±1 sd) Total Body Clearance (1.8 (0.1) L/h vs. 1.8 (0.3) L/h) and mean Volume of Distribution (10.4 (1.2) L vs. 10.3 (1.6) L) were similar following administration of a one gram intravenous bolus dose.

Therapeutic levels of cefotetan are achieved in many body tissues and fluids including:

   skin  ureter
   muscle  bladder
   fat  maxillary sinus mucosa
   myometrium  tonsil
   endometrium  bile
   cervix  peritoneal fluid
   ovary  umbilical cord serum
   kidney  amniotic fluid

Microbiology

The bactericidal action of cefotetan results from inhibition of cell wall synthesis. Cefotetan has in vitro activity against a wide range of aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. The methoxy group in the 7-alpha position provides cefotetan with a high degree of stability in the presence of beta-lactamases including both penicillinases and cephalosporinases of gram-negative bacteria.

Cefotetan has been shown to be active against most strains of the following organisms both in vitro and in clinical infections (see INDICATIONS AND USAGE).

Gram-Negative Aerobes
Escherichia coli
Haemophilus influenzae
(including ampicillin-resistant strains)
Klebsiella species (including K. pneumoniae)
Morganella morganii
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
(nonpenicillinase-producing strains)
Proteus mirabilis
Proteus vulgaris
Providencia rettgeri
Serratia marcescens

NOTE: Approximately one-half of the usually clinically significant strains of Enterobacter species (e.g., E. aerogenes and E. cloacae) are resistant to cefotetan. Most strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species are resistant to cefotetan.

Gram-Positive Aerobes
Staphylococcus aureus (including penicillinase- and nonpenicillinase-producing strains)
Staphylococcus epidermidis
Streptococcus agalactiae
(group B beta-hemolytic streptococcus)
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Streptococcus pyogenes

NOTE: Methicillin-resistant staphylococci are resistant to cephalosporins. Some strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis and most strains of enterococci, e.g., Enterococcus faecalis (formerly Streptococcus faecalis) are resistant to cefotetan.

Anaerobes
Prevotella bivia (formerly Bacteroides bivius)
Prevotella disiens (formerly Bacteroides disiens)
Bacteroides fragilis
Prevotella melaninogenica
(formerly Bacteroides melaninogenicus)
Bacteroides vulgatus
Fusobacterium
species
Gram-positive bacilli (including Clostridium species; see WARNINGS)

NOTE: Most strains of C. difficile are resistant (see WARNINGS).

Peptococcus niger
Peptostreptococcus
species

NOTE: Many strains of B. distasonis, B. ovatus and B. thetaiotaomicron are resistant to cefotetan in vitro. However, the therapeutic utility of cefotetan against these organisms cannot be accurately predicted on the basis of in vitro susceptibility tests alone.

The following in vitro data are available but their clinical significance is unknown. Cefotetan has been shown to be active in vitro against most strains of the following organisms:

Gram-Negative Aerobes
Citrobacter species (including C. diversus and C. freundii)
Klebsiella oxytoca
Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis
Neisseria gonorrhoeae (penicillinase-producing strains)
Salmonella species
Serratia species
Shigella species
Yersinia enterocolitica

Anaerobes
Porphyromonas asaccharolytica (formerly Bacteroides asaccharolyticus)
Prevotella oralis (formerly Bacteroides oralis)
Bacteroides splanchnicus
Clostridium difficile (see WARNINGS)
Propionibacterium species
Veillonella species

Susceptibility Tests

Dilution Techniques

Quantitative methods are used to determine antimicrobial minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). These MICs provide estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The MICs should be determined using a standardized procedure. Standardized procedures are based on a dilution method1 (broth or agar) or equivalent with standardized inoculum concentrations and standardized concentrations of cefotetan powder. The MIC values should be interpreted according to the following criteria:

MIC (mcg/mL) Interpretation
 ≤16  Susceptible (S)
 32  Intermediate (I)
 ≥64  Resistant (R)

A report of 'Susceptible' indicates that the pathogen is likely to be inhibited if the antimicrobial compound in the blood reaches the concentrations usually achievable. A report of 'Intermediate' indicates that the result should be considered equivocal, and if the microorganism is not fully susceptible to alternative, clinically feasible drugs, the test should be repeated. This category implies possible clinical applicability in body sites where the drug is physiologically concentrated or in situations where high dosage of drug can be used. This category also provides a buffer zone which prevents small uncontrolled technical factors from causing major discrepancies in interpretation. A report of 'Resistant' indicates that the pathogen is not likely to be inhibited if the antimicrobial compound in the blood reaches the concentrations usually achievable; other therapy should be selected.

Standardized susceptibility test procedures require the use of laboratory control microorganisms to control the technical aspects of the laboratory procedures. Standard cefotetan powder should provide the following MIC values:

Microorganism MIC (mcg/mL)
 E. coli ATCC® 25922  0.06–0.25
 S. aureus ATCC® 29213  4–16

Diffusion Techniques

Quantitative methods that require measurement of zone diameters also provide reproducible estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. One such standardized procedure2 requires the use of the standardized inoculum concentrations. This procedure uses paper disks impregnated with 30 mcg cefotetan to test the susceptibility of microorganisms to cefotetan.

Reports from the laboratory providing results of the standard single-disk susceptibility test with a 30 mcg cefotetan disk should be interpreted according to the following criteria:

Zone Diameter (mm) Interpretation
 ≥16  Susceptible (S)
 13–15  Intermediate (I)
 ≤12  Resistant (R)

Interpretation should be as stated above for results using dilution techniques. Interpretation involves correlation of the diameter obtained in the disk test with the MIC for cefotetan.

As with standardized dilution techniques, diffusion methods require the use of laboratory control microorganisms that are used to control the technical aspects of the laboratory procedures. For the diffusion technique, the 30 mcg cefotetan disk should provide the following zone diameters in these laboratory test quality control strains.

Microorganism Zone Diameter (mm)
 E. coli ATCC® 25922  28–34
 S. aureus ATCC® 25923  17–23

Anaerobic Techniques

For anaerobic bacteria, the susceptibility to cefotetan as MICs can be determined by standardized test methods3. The MIC values obtained should be interpreted according to the following criteria:

MIC (mcg/mL) Interpretation
 ≤16  Susceptible (S)
 32  Intermediate (I)
 ≥64  Resistant (R)

Interpretation is identical to that stated above for results using dilution techniques.

As with other susceptibility techniques, the use of laboratory control microorganisms is required to control the technical aspects of the laboratory standardized procedures. Standardized cefotetan powder should provide the following MIC values:

Microorganism MIC (mcg/mL)
 Bacteroides fragilis ATCC® 25285  4–16
 Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron ATCC® 29741  32–128
 Eubacterium lentum ATCC® 43055  32–128

Indications and Usage for Cefotetan and Dextrose

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP and other antibacterial drugs, Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antimicrobial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Treatment

Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP is indicated for the therapeutic treatment of the following infections when caused by susceptible strains of the designated organisms:

Urinary Tract Infections caused by E. coli, Klebsiella spp (including K. pneumoniae), Proteus mirabilis and Proteus spp (which may include the organisms now called Proteus vulgaris, Providencia rettgeri, and Morganella morganii).

Lower Respiratory Tract Infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus (penicillinase- and nonpenicillinase-producing strains), Haemophilus influenzae (including ampicillin-resistant strains), Klebsiella species (including K. pneumoniae), E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Serratia marcescens1.

Skin and Skin Structure Infections due to Staphylococcus aureus (penicillinase- and nonpenicillinase-producing strains), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus species (excluding enterococci), Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Peptococcus niger1, Peptostreptococcus species.

Gynecologic Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus (including penicillinase- and nonpenicillinase-producing strains), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus species (excluding enterococci), Streptococcus agalactiae, E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Bacteroides species (excluding B. distasonis, B. ovatus, B. thetaiotaomicron), Fusobacterium species1, and gram-positive anaerobic cocci (including Peptococcus niger and Peptostreptococcus species).

Cefotetan, like other cephalosporins, has no activity against Chlamydia trachomatis. Therefore, when cephalosporins are used in the treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease, and C. trachomatis is one of the suspected pathogens, appropriate antichlamydial coverage should be added.

Intra-abdominal Infections caused by E. coli, Klebsiella species (including K. pneumoniae), Streptococcus species (excluding enterococci), Bacteroides species (excluding B. distasonis, B. ovatus, B. thetaiotaomicron) and Clostridium species1.

Bone and Joint Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus1.

Specimens for bacteriological examination should be obtained in order to isolate and identify causative organisms and to determine their susceptibilities to cefotetan. Therapy may be instituted before results of susceptibility studies are known; however, once these results become available, the antibiotic treatment should be adjusted accordingly.

In cases of confirmed or suspected gram-positive or gram-negative sepsis or in patients with other serious infections in which the causative organism has not been identified, it is possible to use Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP concomitantly with an aminoglycoside. Cefotetan combinations with aminoglycosides have been shown to be synergistic in vitro against many Enterobacteriaceae and also some other gram-negative bacteria. The dosage recommended in the labeling of both antibiotics may be given and depends on the severity of the infection and the patient's condition.

NOTE: Increases in serum creatinine have occurred when cefotetan was given alone. If Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP and an aminoglycoside are used concomitantly, renal function should be carefully monitored, because nephrotoxicity may be potentiated.

1
Efficacy for this organism in this organ system was studied in fewer than ten infections.

Prophylaxis

The preoperative administration of Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP may reduce the incidence of certain postoperative infections in patients undergoing surgical procedures that are classified as clean, contaminated or potentially contaminated (e.g., cesarean section, abdominal or vaginal hysterectomy, transurethral surgery, biliary tract surgery, and gastrointestinal surgery).

If there are signs and symptoms of infection, specimens for culture should be obtained for identification of the causative organism so that appropriate therapeutic measures may be initiated.

Contraindications

Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP is contraindicated in patients with a known allergy to the cephalosporin group of antibiotics and in those individuals who have experienced a cephalosporin associated hemolytic anemia.

Solutions containing dextrose may be contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to corn products.

Warnings

BEFORE THERAPY WITH CEFOTETAN FOR INJECTION USP AND DEXTROSE INJECTION USP IS INSTITUTED, CAREFUL INQUIRY SHOULD BE MADE TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE PATIENT HAS HAD PREVIOUS HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS TO CEFOTETAN DISODIUM, CEPHALOSPORINS, PENICILLINS, OR OTHER DRUGS. IF THIS PRODUCT IS TO BE GIVEN TO PENICILLIN-SENSITIVE PATIENTS, CAUTION SHOULD BE EXERCISED BECAUSE CROSS-HYPERSENSITIVITY AMONG BETA-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS HAS BEEN CLEARLY DOCUMENTED AND MAY OCCUR IN UP TO 10% OF PATIENTS WITH A HISTORY OF PENICILLIN ALLERGY. IF AN ALLERGIC REACTION TO CEFOTETAN FOR INJECTION USP AND DEXTROSE INJECTION USP OCCURS, DISCONTINUE THE DRUG. SERIOUS ACUTE HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS MAY REQUIRE TREATMENT WITH EPINEPHRINE AND OTHER EMERGENCY MEASURES, INCLUDING OXYGEN, INTRAVENOUS FLUIDS, INTRAVENOUS ANTIHISTAMINES, CORTICOSTEROIDS, PRESSOR AMINES, AND AIRWAY MANAGEMENT, AS CLINICALLY INDICATED.

AN IMMUNE MEDIATED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA HAS BEEN OBSERVED IN PATIENTS RECEIVING CEPHALOSPORIN CLASS ANTIBIOTICS. SEVERE CASES OF HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA, INCLUDING FATALITIES, HAVE BEEN REPORTED IN ASSOCIATION WITH THE ADMINISTRATION OF CEFOTETAN. SUCH REPORTS ARE UNCOMMON. THERE APPEARS TO BE AN INCREASED RISK OF DEVELOPING HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA ON CEFOTETAN RELATIVE TO OTHER CEPHALOSPORINS OF AT LEAST 3 FOLD. IF A PATIENT DEVELOPS ANEMIA ANYTIME WITHIN 2–3 WEEKS SUBSEQUENT TO THE ADMINISTRATION OF CEFOTETAN, THE DIAGNOSIS OF A CEPHALOSPORIN ASSOCIATED ANEMIA SHOULD BE CONSIDERED AND THE DRUG STOPPED UNTIL THE ETIOLOGY IS DETERMINED WITH CERTAINTY. BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS MAY BE CONSIDERED AS NEEDED (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

PATIENTS WHO RECEIVE COURSES OF CEFOTETAN FOR THE TREATMENT OR PROPHYLAXIS OF INFECTIONS SHOULD HAVE PERIODIC MONITORING FOR SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA INCLUDING A MEASUREMENT OF HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS WHERE APPROPRIATE.

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

In common with many other broad-spectrum antibiotics, Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP may be associated with a fall in prothrombin activity and, possibly, subsequent bleeding. Those at increased risk include patients with renal or hepatobiliary impairment or poor nutritional state, the elderly, and patients with cancer. Prothrombin time should be monitored and exogenous vitamin K administered as indicated.

Precautions

General

Prescribing Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

As with other broad-spectrum antibiotics, prolonged use of Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms. Careful observation of the patient is essential. If superinfection does occur during therapy, appropriate measures should be taken.

Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP should be used with caution in individuals with a history of gastrointestinal disease, particularly colitis.

As with other dextrose-containing solutions, Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP should be prescribed with caution in patients with overt or known subclinical diabetes mellitus or carbohydrate intolerance for any reason.

If administration is controlled by a pumping device, care must be taken to discontinue pumping action before the container runs dry or air embolism may result.

Use only if solution is clear and container and seals are intact.

Information for Patients

Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs, including Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP, should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment, and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

As with some other cephalosporins, a disulfiram-like reaction characterized by flushing, sweating, headache, and tachycardia may occur when alcohol (beer, wine, etc.) is ingested within 72 hours after Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP administration. Patients should be cautioned about the ingestion of alcoholic beverages following the administration of Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP.

Drug Interactions

Increases in serum creatinine have occurred when Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP was given alone. If Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP and an aminoglycoside are used concomitantly, renal function should be carefully monitored, because nephrotoxicity may be potentiated.

Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

The administration of Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP may result in a false positive reaction for glucose in the urine using Clinitest®, Benedict's solution, or Fehling's solution. It is recommended that glucose tests based on enzymatic glucose oxidase be used.

As with other cephalosporins, high concentrations of cefotetan may interfere with measurement of serum and urine creatinine levels by Jaffé reaction and produce false increases in the levels of creatinine reported.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Although long-term studies in animals have not been performed to evaluate carcinogenic potential, no mutagenic potential of cefotetan was found in standard laboratory tests.

Cefotetan has adverse effects on the testes of prepubertal rats. Subcutaneous administration of 500 mg/kg/day (approximately 8–16 times the usual adult human dose) on days 6–35 of life (thought to be developmentally analogous to late childhood and prepuberty in humans) resulted in reduced testicular weight and seminiferous tubule degeneration in 10 of 10 animals. Affected cells included spermatogonia and spermatocytes; Sertoli and Leydig cells were unaffected. Incidence and severity of lesions were dose-dependent; at 120 mg/kg/day (approximately 2–4 times the usual human dose) only 1 of 10 treated animals was affected, and the degree of degeneration was mild.

Similar lesions have been observed in experiments of comparable design with other methylthiotetrazole-containing antibiotics and impaired fertility has been reported, particularly at high dose levels. No testicular effects were observed in 7-week-old rats treated with up to 1000 mg/kg/day SC for 5 weeks, or in infant dogs (3 weeks old) that received up to 300 mg/kg/day IV for 5 weeks. The relevance of these findings in humans is unknown.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects

Pregnancy Category B

Reproduction studies have been performed in rats and monkeys at doses up to 20 times the human dose and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to cefotetan. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproductive studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Nursing Mothers

Cefotetan is excreted in human milk in very low concentrations. Caution should be exercised when cefotetan is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Of the 925 subjects who received cefotetan in clinical studies, 492 (53%) were 60 years and older, while 76 (8%) were 80 years and older. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and the other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION – Impaired Renal Function.)

Adverse Reactions

In clinical studies, the following adverse effects were considered related to Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP therapy. Those appearing in italics have been reported during postmarketing experience.

Gastrointestinal: symptoms occurred in 1.5% of patients, the most frequent were diarrhea (1 in 80) and nausea (1 in 700); pseudomembranous colitis. Onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibiotic treatment or surgical prophylaxis. (See WARNINGS.)

Hematologic: laboratory abnormalities occurred in 1.4% of patients and included eosinophilia (1 in 200), positive direct Coombs' test (1 in 250), and thrombocytosis (1 in 300); agranulocytosis, hemolytic anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and prolonged prothrombin time with or without bleeding.

Hepatic: enzyme elevations occurred in 1.2% of patients and included a rise in ALT (SGPT) (1 in 150), AST (SGOT) (1 in 300), alkaline phosphatase (1 in 700), and LDH (1 in 700).

Hypersensitivity: reactions were reported in 1.2% of patients and included rash (1 in 150) and itching (1 in 700); anaphylactic reactions and urticaria.

Local: effects were reported in less than 1% of patients and included phlebitis at the site of injection (1 in 300), and discomfort (1 in 500).

Renal: Elevations in BUN and serum creatinine have been reported.

Urogenital: Nephrotoxicity has rarely been reported.

Miscellaneous: Fever

In addition to the adverse reactions listed above which have been observed in patients treated with cefotetan, the following adverse reactions and altered laboratory tests have been reported for cephalosporin-class antibiotics: pruritus, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, erythema multiforme, toxic epidermal necrolysis, vomiting, abdominal pain, colitis, superinfection, vaginitis including vaginal candidiasis, renal dysfunction, toxic nephropathy, hepatic dysfunction including cholestasis, aplastic anemia, hemorrhage, elevated bilirubin, pancytopenia, and neutropenia.

Several cephalosporins have been implicated in triggering seizures, particularly in patients with renal impairment, when the dosage was not reduced. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and OVERDOSAGE.) If seizures associated with drug therapy occur, the drug should be discontinued. Anticonvulsant therapy can be given if clinically indicated.

Overdosage

Information on overdosage with Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP in humans is not available. If overdosage should occur, it should be treated symptomatically and hemodialysis considered, particularly if renal function is compromised.

Cefotetan and Dextrose Dosage and Administration

Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP in the DUPLEX® Container is intended for intravenous use only.

Treatment

The usual adult dosage is 1 or 2 grams of Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP administered intravenously every 12 hours for 5 to 10 days. Proper dosage should be determined by the condition of the patient, severity of the infection, and susceptibility of the causative organism.

General Guidelines for Dosage of Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP
Type of Infection Daily Dose Frequency and Route
*
Klebsiella pneumoniae skin and skin structure infections should be treated with 1 or 2 grams every 12 hours IV.
Maximum daily dosage should not exceed 6 grams.
 Urinary Tract  1–4 grams  500 mg every 12 hours IV
     1 or 2 g every 24 hours IV
     1 or 2 g every 12 hours IV
 Skin & Skin Structure    
   Mild – Moderate*  2 grams  2 g every 24 hours IV
     1 g every 12 hours IV
   Severe  4 grams  2 g every 12 hours IV
 Other Sites  2–4 grams  1 or 2 g every 12 hours IV
 Severe  4 grams  2 g every 12 hours IV
 Life-Threatening  6 grams  3 g every 12 hours IV

If Chlamydia trachomatis is a suspected pathogen in gynecologic infections, appropriate antichlamydial coverage should be added, since cefotetan has no activity against this organism.

Prophylaxis

To prevent postoperative infection in clean, contaminated, or potentially contaminated surgery in adults, the recommended dosage is 1 or 2 g of Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP administered once, intravenously, 30 to 60 minutes prior to surgery. In patients undergoing cesarean section, the dose should be administered as soon as the umbilical cord is clamped.

Impaired Renal Function

When renal function is impaired, a reduced dosage schedule must be employed. The following dosage guidelines may be used.

DOSAGE GUIDELINES FOR PATIENTS WITH IMPAIRED RENAL FUNCTION
Creatinine Clearance
mL/min
Dose Frequency
*
Dose determined by the type and severity of infection, and susceptibility of the causative organism.
 > 30  Usual Recommended Dosage*  Every 12 hours
 10 – 30  Usual Recommended Dosage*  Every 24 hours
 < 10  Usual Recommended Dosage*  Every 48 hours

Alternatively, the dosing interval may remain constant at 12 hour intervals, but the dose reduced to one-half the usual recommended dose for patients with a creatinine clearance of 10–30 mL/min, and one-quarter the usual recommended dose for patients with a creatinine clearance of less than 10 mL/min.

When only serum creatinine levels are available, creatinine clearance may be calculated from the following formula. The serum creatinine level should represent a steady state of renal function.

 Males:  Weight (kg) × (140 - age)  
   72 × serum creatinine (mg/100 mL)  
 Females:  0.9 × value for males  

Cefotetan is dialyzable and it is recommended that for patients undergoing intermittent hemodialysis, one-quarter of the usual recommended dose be given every 24 hours on days between dialysis and one-half the usual recommended dose on the day of dialysis.

Intravenous Administration

The intravenous route is preferable for patients with bacteremia, bacterial septicemia, or other severe or life-threatening infections, or for patients who may be poor risks because of lowered resistance resulting from such debilitating conditions as malnutrition, trauma, surgery, diabetes, heart failure, or malignancy, particularly if shock is present or impending.

Using an infusion system, Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP may be given over a longer period of time through the tubing system by which the patient may be receiving other intravenous solutions. Butterfly or scalp vein-type needles are preferred for this type of infusion. However, during infusion of the solution containing Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP, it is advisable to discontinue temporarily the administration of other solutions at the same site.

NOTE: Solutions of Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP must not be admixed with solutions containing aminoglycosides. If Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP and aminoglycosides are to be administered to the same patient, they must be administered separately and not as a mixed injection.

Caution: Do not use plastic containers in series connections. Such use could result in air embolism due to residual air being drawn from the primary container before administration of the fluid from the secondary container is complete.

NOTE: Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration.

DUPLEX® Drug Delivery System Directions for Use

  • To avoid inadvertent activation, DUPLEX® Container should remain in the folded position until activation is intended.

Patient Labeling and Drug Powder/Diluent Inspection

  • Apply patient-specific label on foil side of container. USE CARE to avoid activation. Do not cover any portion of foil strip with patient label.
  • Unlatch side tab and unfold DUPLEX® Container. (See Diagram 1.)
  • Visually inspect diluent chamber for particulate matter.
  • Use only if container and seals are intact.
  • To inspect the drug powder for foreign matter or discoloration, peel foil strip from drug chamber. (See Diagram 2.)
  • Protect from light after removal of foil strip.
    Note: If foil strip is removed, product must be used within 7 days, but not beyond the labeled expiration date.
  • The product should be re-folded and the side tab latched until ready to activate.

Reconstitution (Activation)

  • Do not use directly after storage by refrigeration, allow the product to equilibrate to room temperature before patient use.
  • Unfold the DUPLEX® Container and point the set port in a downward direction. Starting at the hanger tab end, fold the DUPLEX® Container just below the diluent meniscus trapping all air above the fold. To activate, squeeze the folded diluent chamber until the seal between the diluent and powder opens, releasing diluent into the drug powder chamber.
    (See Diagram 3.)
  • Agitate the liquid-powder mixture until the drug powder is completely dissolved.
    Note: Following reconstitution (activation), product must be used within 12 hours if stored at room temperature or within 5 days if stored under refrigeration.

Administration

  • Visually inspect the reconstituted solution for particulate matter.
  • Point the set port in a downwards direction. Starting at the hanger tab end, fold the DUPLEX® Container just below the solution meniscus trapping all air above the fold. Squeeze the folded DUPLEX® Container until the seal between reconstituted drug solution and set port opens, releasing liquid to set port. (See Diagram 4.)
  • Prior to attaching the IV set, check for minute leaks by squeezing container firmly. If leaks are found, discard container and solution as sterility may be impaired.
  • Using aseptic technique, peel foil cover from the set port and attach sterile administration set. (See Diagram 5.)
  • Refer to Directions for Use accompanying the administration set.

Precautions

  • As with other cephalosporins, reconstituted Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP tends to darken depending on storage conditions, within the stated recommendations. However, product potency is not adversely affected.
  • Use only if prepared solution is clear and free from particulate matter.
  • Do not use in series connection.
  • Do not introduce additives into the DUPLEX® Container.
  • Do not freeze.

How is Cefotetan and Dextrose Supplied

Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP in the DUPLEX® Drug Delivery System is a flexible dual chamber container supplied in two concentrations. After reconstitution, the concentrations are equivalent to 1 g and 2 g cefotetan. The diluent chamber contains approximately 50 mL of Dextrose Injection. Dextrose Injection has been adjusted to 3.58% w/v and 2.08% w/v for the 1 g and 2 g doses, respectively, such that the reconstituted solution is iso-osmotic.

Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP in the DUPLEX® Container is supplied sterile and nonpyrogenic in the DUPLEX® Drug Delivery System containers packaged 24 units per case.

NDC REF Dose Volume
 Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP in the DUPLEX® Container
   0264-3173-11  3173-11  1 g  50 mL
 Cefotetan for Injection USP and Dextrose Injection USP in the DUPLEX® Container
   0264-3175-11  3175-11  2 g  50 mL

Store the unactivated unit at 20–25°C (68–77°F). Excursions permitted to 15–30°C (59–86°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.]

Rx only

Revised: August 2012

REFERENCES

  1. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria That Grow Aerobically; Approved Standard - Ninth Edition. CLSI document M07-A9. CLSI, 940 West Valley Road, Suite 1400, Wayne, PA 19087, 2012.
  2. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests; Approved Standard - Eleventh Edition. CLSI document M02-A11. CLSI, 940 West Valley Road, Suite 1400, Wayne, PA 19087, 2012.
  3. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Methods for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Anaerobic Bacteria; Approved Standard - Eighth Edition. CLSI document M11-A8. CLSI, 940 West Valley Road, Suite 1400, Wayne, PA 19087, 2012.
  4. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Twenty-second Informational Supplement. CLSI document M100-S22. CLSI, 940 West Valley Road, Suite 1400, Wayne, PA 19087, 2012.

DUPLEX is a registered trademark of B. Braun Medical Inc.

ATCC is a registered trademark of American Type Culture Collection.

Clinitest is a registered trademark of Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc.

U.S. Patent Nos. 5,944,709, 6,165,161, 6,203,535, 6,846,305, and 6,996,951.

B. Braun Medical Inc.
Irvine, CA 92614-5895 USA
1-800-227-2862
www.bbraun.com
Made in USA

Y36-002-815        LD-198-3

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 1 g Container Label

Cefotetan for Injection USP
and Dextrose Injection USP
1g*

REF 3173-11
NDC 0264-3173-11

DUPLEX®
DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

50 mL

Use only after mixing contents of both chambers.
For IV Use Only    Iso-osmotic    Single Dose    Sterile/Nonpyrogenic

*Contains Cefotetan disodium equivalent to 1 g cefotetan.

Reconstitution: Hold containter with set port in a downward direction and fold the diluent chamber just below the solution meniscus. To activate seal, squeeze folded diluent chamber until seal between diluent and drug chamber opens, releasing diluent into drug chamber. Agitate the reconstituted solution until the drug powder is completely dissolved. Fold the container a second time and squeeze until seal between drug chamber and set port opens.

After reconstitution each 50 mL single dose unit contains: Cefotetan for Injection (equivalent to 1 g cefotetan) with approx. 1.79 g (3.58% w/v) Hydrous Dextrose in Water for Injection USP. Sodium content is 80 mg (3.5 mEq) per gram of cefotetan.   Approximate osmolality: 290 mOsmol/kg.

Prior to Reconstitution: Store at 20-25°C (68-77°F). Excursions permitted to 15-30°C (59-86°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.] Use only if container and seals are intact. Do not peel foil strip until ready for use. After foil strip removal, product must be used within 7 days, but not beyond the labeled expiration date. Protect from light after removal of foil strip.

After Reconstitution: Use only if prepared solution is clear and free from particulate matter. Use within 12 hours if stored at room temperature or within 5 days if stored under refrigeration. Do not use in a series connection. Do not introduce additives into this container. Prior to administration check for minute leaks by squeezing container firmly. If leaks are found, discard container and solution as sterility may be impaired. Do not freeze.

The DUPLEX Container is Latex-free, PVC-free, and DEHP-free
Rx only

B. Braun Medical Inc.
Made in USA

Y37-002-400    LD-208-2  

PEEL HERE

Drug Chamber

Discard unit if foil strip is damaged. Peel foil strip only when ready for use. Visually inspect drug prior to reconstitution.

See package insert for complete directions for reconstitution and administration.

LD-336-1 X27-001-485

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 2 g Container Label

Cefotetan for Injection USP
and Dextrose Injection USP
2g*

REF 3175-11
NDC 0264-3175-11

DUPLEX®
DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

50 mL

Use only after mixing contents of both chambers.
For IV Use Only    Iso-osmotic    Single Dose    Sterile/Nonpyrogenic

*Contains Cefotetan disodium equivalent to 2 g cefotetan.

Reconstitution: Hold containter with set port in a downward direction and fold the diluent chamber just below the solution meniscus. To activate seal, squeeze folded diluent chamber until seal between diluent and drug chamber opens, releasing diluent into drug chamber. Agitate the reconstituted solution until the drug powder is completely dissolved. Fold the container a second time and squeeze until seal between drug chamber and set port opens.

After reconstitution each 50 mL single dose unit contains: Cefotetan for Injection (equivalent to 2 g cefotetan) with approx. 1.04 g (2.08% w/v) Hydrous Dextrose in Water for Injection USP. Sodium content is 80 mg (3.5 mEq) per gram of cefotetan.  Approximate osmolality: 290 mOsmol/kg.

Prior to Reconstitution: Store at 20-25°C (68-77°F). Excursions permitted to 15-30°C (59-86°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.] Use only if container and seals are intact. Do not peel foil strip until ready for use. After foil strip removal, product must be used within 7 days, but not beyond the labeled expiration date. Protect from light after removal of foil strip.

After Reconstitution: Use only if prepared solution is clear and free from particulate matter. Use within 12 hours if stored at room temperature or within 5 days if stored under refrigeration. Do not use in a series connection. Do not introduce additives into this container. Prior to administration check for minute leaks by squeezing container firmly. If leaks are found, discard container and solution as sterility may be impaired. Do not freeze.

The DUPLEX Container is Latex-free, PVC-free, and DEHP-free
Rx only

B. Braun Medical Inc.
Made in USA

Y37-002-401     LD-209-2 

PEEL HERE

Drug Chamber

Discard unit if foil strip is damaged. Peel foil strip only when ready for use. Visually inspect drug prior to reconstitution.

See package insert for complete directions for reconstitution and administration.

LD-336-1 X27-001-485

Cefotetan and Dextrose 
Cefotetan and Dextrose injection, solution
Product Information
Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL Item Code (Source) NDC:0264-3173
Route of Administration INTRAVENOUS DEA Schedule     
Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
Ingredient Name Basis of Strength Strength
CEFOTETAN DISODIUM (CEFOTETAN) CEFOTETAN 1 g  in 50 mL
Inactive Ingredients
Ingredient Name Strength
DEXTROSE MONOHYDRATE 1.79 g  in 50 mL
WATER  
Packaging
# Item Code Package Description
1 NDC:0264-3173-11 24 CONTAINER (24 CONTAINER) in 1 CASE
1 50 mL in 1 CONTAINER
Marketing Information
Marketing Category Application Number or Monograph Citation Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
NDA NDA065430 08/20/2010
Cefotetan and Dextrose 
Cefotetan and Dextrose injection, solution
Product Information
Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL Item Code (Source) NDC:0264-3175
Route of Administration INTRAVENOUS DEA Schedule     
Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
Ingredient Name Basis of Strength Strength
CEFOTETAN DISODIUM (CEFOTETAN) CEFOTETAN 2 g  in 50 mL
Inactive Ingredients
Ingredient Name Strength
DEXTROSE MONOHYDRATE 1.04 g  in 50 mL
WATER  
Packaging
# Item Code Package Description
1 NDC:0264-3175-11 24 CONTAINER (24 CONTAINER) in 1 CASE
1 50 mL in 1 CONTAINER
Marketing Information
Marketing Category Application Number or Monograph Citation Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
NDA NDA065430 08/20/2010
Labeler - B. Braun Medical Inc. (002397347)
Revised: 02/2013
 
B. Braun Medical Inc.
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