Aspirin / butalbital Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Warnings
Aspirin / butalbital is also known as: Axotal
Aspirin / butalbital Pregnancy Warnings
Aspirin has not been formally assigned to a pregnancy category. The frequency of fetal exposure to aspirin reported in many studies may be underestimated because aspirin (and other salicylates) occur in many over-the-counter preparations and women may fail to recall taking aspirin and over-the-counter drugs. NSAID use during the third trimester of pregnancy should be avoided due to effects on the fetal cardiovascular system (closure of the ductus arteriosus). Aspirin use in pregnancy has been associated with alterations in both maternal and fetal hemostasis. In addition, high doses have been associated with increased perinatal mortality, intrauterine growth retardation, and teratogenic effects. Aspirin should only be given during pregnancy when benefit outweighs risk. Increased maternal bleeding can occur during delivery when aspirin is used 1 week prior to and/or during labor and delivery. Prolonged gestation and labor have been reported due to aspirin's inhibition of prostaglandin. Butalbital has been assigned to pregnancy category C. Barbiturates in general have been reported to readily cross the placental barrier. Withdrawal seizures have been reported in a two day old infant whose mother had taken a butalbital containing drug during the last two months of pregnancy. Butalbital was found in the infant's serum. Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted. There are no controlled data in human pregnancy. Butalbital should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the infant. Aspirin-butalbital has been assigned to pregnancy category C. Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with this combination drug. There are no controlled data in human pregnancy. Aspirin-butalbital should only be given during pregnancy when need has been clearly established.
A study of the use of low-dose aspirin (60 mg per day) to prevent and treat pre-eclampsia in 9364 pregnant women (the Collaborative Low-dose Aspirin Study in Pregnancy--CLASP) did "not support routine prophylactic or therapeutic administration of antiplatelet therapy in pregnancy to all women at increased risk of pre-eclampsia or IUGR." In that study, no excess of intraventricular hemorrhage, neonatal bleeds, or mortality attributable to bleeding were observed. The investigators did identify a possible role for low-dose aspirin in the treatment of early-onset pre-eclampsia severe enough to need very preterm delivery. Another study of low-dose aspirin (follow-up from the Italian Study of Aspirin in Pregnancy) has suggested that "low dose aspirin in pregnancy is safe with respect to the risks of malformation and of major impairment in development at 18 months of age." High-dose aspirin (2 g per day) has been associated with stillbirths, cerebral hemorrhage, oculoauriculovertebral dysplasia, neonatal salicylate toxicity, constricted ductus arteriosus, cyclopia, and neonatal acidosis. Some cases of congenital heart defects have been reported. However, a case control study of aspirin use in the first trimester concluded that aspirin "does not increase the risk of congenital heart defects in relation to that of other structural malformations."
Aspirin / butalbital Breastfeeding Warnings
Aspirin is excreted into human milk in small amounts. Peak milk salicylate levels have been reported at nine hours after maternal dosing (and measured at 1.1 mg/dL). Use of large doses of aspirin can result in rashes, platelet abnormalities, and bleeding in nursing infants. Because of a single case report of metabolic acidosis, the American Academy of Pediatrics characterizes aspirin as a drug that has been "associated with significant effects on some nursing infants and should be given to nursing mothers with caution." Barbiturates are excreted in breast milk in small amounts. The significance of the effects on nursing infants has not been reported. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from butalbital, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
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