Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated

( IPV )

Pronunciation: POE-lee-oh-VYE-russ vaccine
Class: Vaccine, viral

Trade Names

IPOL
- Injection Suspension of 3 types of poliovirus (Types 1, 2, and 3) grown in monkey kidney cell cultures

Pharmacology

Induces protective antipoliovirus antibodies, reducing pharyngeal excretion of poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3.

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Indications and Usage

Routine use in infants and children is not recommended; OPV is generally preferred. Prophylaxis for individuals traveling to regions where poliomyelitis is endemic or epidemic (eg, developing countries), who routinely are exposed to patients who may be excreting polioviruses or to laboratory specimens that may contain polioviruses, and for members of communities with disease caused by wild polioviruses. Offer IPV to individuals who decline OPV or in whom OPV is contraindicated. In household with immunocompromised member or close contacts, or in household with unimmunized adult, use only IPV for all those requiring poliovirus immunization. Previous clinical poliomyelitis (usually because of single poliovirus type) or incomplete immunization with OPV are not contraindications to completing primary series of immunization with IPV.

Contraindications

History of hypersensitivity to any component of vaccine, including neomycin, streptomycin, and polymyxin B. Patients with acute febrile illness should not receive IPV until after recovery.

Dosage and Administration

Children

Subcutaneous 0.5 mL in deltoid region. In infants and small children, preferred site is anterolateral thigh muscle.

Children

Primary series consists of 3 doses of 0.5 mL. Separate first 2 doses by at least 4 wk, but preferably 8 wk; commonly given at 2 and 4 mo. Give third dose at least 6 mo, but preferably 12 mo, after second dose, commonly given at 15 to 18 mo. Give all children who received primary series of IPV or combination of IPV and OPV booster dose of OPV or IPV before entering school, unless third dose of primary series was administered on or after fourth birthday.

Adults

For unvaccinated adults at increased risk of exposure to poliovirus, give primary series of IPV: 2 doses at 1 to 2-mo interval, with third dose 6 to 12 mo later. If less than 3 mo, but older than 2 mo remain before protection is needed (eg, planned international travel), give 3 doses of IPV at least 1 mo apart. Likewise, if only 1 or 2 mo remain, give 2 doses of IPV 1 mo apart. If less than 4 wk remain, give single dose of either OPV or IPV. Give adults at increased risk of exposure who have had at least 1 dose of OPV, less than 3 doses of conventional IPV (available before 1988) or combination of conventional IPV and OPV totaling less than 3 doses, at least 1 dose of OPV or IPV. Give any additional doses needed to complete primary series if time permits. Give adults who have completed primary series with any poliovirus vaccine and who are at increased risk of exposure to poliovirus single dose of either OPV or IPV.

General Advice

  • If blood appears in syringe after aspiration, do not inject. Withdraw needle and discard syringe. Use new dose injected at different site.
  • Document manufacturer and lot number of vaccine, date of administration, and name, address, and title of person administering vaccine in permanent record according to federal regulations.

Storage/Stability

Store under refrigeration (36° to 46°F). Protect from freezing.

Drug Interactions

Several routine pediatric vaccines may safely and effectively be administered simultaneously at separate injection sites (eg, DTP, MMR, OPV, Hib, hepatitis B, influenza). National authorities recommend simultaneous immunization at separate sites as indicated by age or health risk.

Laboratory Test Interactions

None well documented.

Adverse Reactions

Local

IPV administration may result in erythema, induration and pain at injection site.

Systemic

Temperatures 39°C (102°F) or higher reported in 38% of IPV vaccinees.

Precautions

Pregnancy

Category C . Vaccinate if risk of disease outweighs risk to patients.

Lactation

Undetermined.

Patient Information

  • Advise patient to observe for fever, erythema, induration, or pain at injection site, and to report to health care provider immediately.
  • Explain risks and benefits of vaccination.
  • Advise patient and family about vaccine schedule. Explain that the series must be completed to offer full protection.

Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health.

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