Palivizumab

Pronunciation: pah-li-VIZ-u-mab
Class: Monoclonal antibody

Trade Names

Synagis
- Injection, solution 100 mg/mL

Pharmacology

Neutralizing and fusion-inhibitory activity against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), inhibiting RSV replication.

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Pharmacokinetics

Elimination

The half-life is 20 days in children younger than 24 mo of age.

Indications and Usage

Prevention of serious lower respiratory tract disease caused by RSV in children at high risk of RSV disease.

Contraindications

Standard considerations.

Dosage and Administration

Children

IM 15 mg/kg monthly through the RSV season. Give doses of more than 1 mL in divided doses.

General Advice

  • For IM administration only. Not for intra-arterial, intradermal, subcutaneous, or IV administration.
  • Preferably administer in anterolateral aspect of thigh. Avoid gluteal injections because of risk of damage to sciatic nerve.
  • Administer first dose prior to commencement of RSV season.
  • Administer immediately after dose is withdrawn from the vial.
  • Do not vigorously agitate the vial.

Storage/Stability

Store at 36° to 46°F in original containers. Do not freeze. Discard any unused portion.

Drug Interactions

None well documented.

Laboratory Test Interactions

None well documented.

Adverse Reactions

Dermatologic

Rash.

EENT

Otitis media (36%); rhinitis (27%).

GI

Hernia (4%); diarrhea; vomiting; gastroenteritis.

Hepatic

Increased AST (3%).

Respiratory

Upper respiratory tract infection (51%); cough; wheezing.

Miscellaneous

Fever (27%); anaphylaxis, injection-site reaction, severe acute hypersensitivity (including dyspnea, cyanosis, respiratory failure, urticaria, pruritus, angioedema, hypotonia, and unresponsiveness); severe thrombocytopenia (postmarketing).

Precautions

Monitor

Monitor patient for signs and symptoms of allergic reaction.


Pregnancy

Category C .

Hypersensitivity

Severe hypersensitivity reactions on initial exposure and reexposure to palivizumab rarely have been reported. Be prepared to treat appropriately.

Adults

Not indicated for adult use.

Cardiopulmonary bypass

Palivizumab serum levels are decreased after cardiopulmonary bypass. Administer a dose of palivizumab as soon as possible after the cardiopulmonary bypass procedure, even if sooner than a month from the previous dose. Thereafter, doses should be administered monthly.

Coagulation disorder

Administer with caution to patients with thrombocytopenia or any coagulation disorder caused by risk of bleeding at IM injection site.

Overdosage

Symptoms

No data available.

Patient Information

  • Advise family or caregiver that medication will be prepared and administered by a health care provider in a health care setting.
  • Educate family or caregiver of importance of monthly injection in helping to prevent RSV infection during the RSV season.
  • Advise family or caregiver to report any of the following to health care provider: injection-site reactions; fever or other signs of infection; sore throat; rash; itching or hives; swelling of the face, lips, eyes, or tongue; diarrhea; wheezing; shortness of breath; difficulty breathing.

Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health.

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