Molybdenum

Pronunciation: mo-LIB-de-num
Class: Trace metal

Trade Names

Ammonium Molybdate
- Injection, solution molybdenum 25 mcg/mL (as ammonium molybdate 46 mcg/mL)

Pharmacology

Constituent of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, sulfite oxidase, and aldehyde oxidase.

Pharmacokinetics

Elimination

Primarily excreted by the kidneys, with some excretion also through bile.

Indications and Usage

As a supplement to TPN to help prevent depletion of endogenous stores of molybdenum and subsequent deficiency symptoms.

Contraindications

Do not give undiluted by direct injection into a peripheral vein; not to be given to copper-deficient patients without copper supplementation.

Dosage and Administration

Molybdenum Deficiency State Resulting From Prolonged TPN Support
Adults

IV 163 mcg/day of molybdenum for 21 days has reversed deficiency symptoms in an adult without toxicity.

Supplementation in Metabolically Stable Adults Receiving TPN
Adults

IV 20 to 120 mcg/day of molybdenum added to the TPN.

Children

IV Extrapolate from the adult dosage recommendation.

Renal Function Impairment

Adjust or omit dose as needed.

Hepatic Function Impairment

Adjust or omit dose as needed in patients with bile duct obstruction.

General Advice

  • Do not give undiluted by direct injection into a peripheral vein.
  • Add to TPN solution.

Storage/Stability

Store between 68° and 77°F.

Drug Interactions

None well documented.

Adverse Reactions

Adverse reactions are unlikely to occur at the recommended dosage level.

Precautions

Monitor

Monitor sulfur and purine metabolism. Frequently monitor blood copper levels because copper and molybdenum are antagonistic to each other.


Pregnancy

Category C . Crosses the placenta.

Lactation

Detected in animal milk.

Renal Function

Primarily excreted by the kidneys; adjust or omit dose as needed.

Hepatic Function

Some excreted in the bile; adjust or omit dose as needed in patients with bile duct obstruction.

Aluminum toxicity

Parenteral products may contain aluminum that may be toxic. Aluminum may reach toxic levels with prolonged parenteral administration if kidney function is impaired. Premature neonates are particularly at risk.

Effects on copper

Excessive amounts of molybdenum may produce copper deficiency.

Effects on metabolism

Molybdenum metabolism is inversely related to copper, sulfate ions, tungsten, methionine, and cysteine.

Overdosage

Symptoms

Gout-like syndrome; increased levels of molybdenum, uric acid, and xanthine oxidase.

Patient Information

  • Advise patient that medication will be prepared and administered by a health care provider in a hospital setting.

Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health.

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