Pronunciation: DIE-klox-uh-SILL-in SO-dee-uhm
Class: Penicillinase-resistant penicillin
- Capsules 250 mg
- Capsules 500 mg
Inhibits bacterial cell wall mucopeptide synthesis.
Rapid and incomplete absorption. T max is 1 to 1.5 h. C max is 10 to 17 mcg/mL. Food delays absorption; take on empty stomach.
Approximately 98% protein bound, mainly to albumin. Excreted in breast milk and crosses the placenta. Low CSF penetration.
Rapidly eliminated, primarily as unchanged drug in the urine. Nonrenal elimination includes hepatic inactivation and excretion in bile. t ½ approximately 0.7 h.
Indications and Usage
Treatment of infections caused by penicillinase-producing staphylococcal infection; initial therapy of suspected staphylococcal infection.
Hypersensitivity to penicillins.
Dosage and AdministrationAdults and children weighing greater than 40 kg
PO 125 to 250 mg every 6 h.Children weighing less than 40 kg
PO 12.5 to 25 mg/kg/day divided in equal doses every 6 h.
- Capsules can be opened and contents mixed with small amount of food or fluid, but patient may experience bad taste.
- Give with full glass of water, not juice or carbonated beverage.
Drug InteractionsContraceptives, oral
May reduce efficacy of oral contraceptives.Food
Antibacterial action may be reduced.Tetracyclines
May impair bactericidal effects of dicloxacillin.
Laboratory Test Interactions
May cause false-positive urine glucose test results with Benedict solution, Fehling solution, or Clinitest tablets but not with enzyme-based tests (eg, Clinistix , Tes-tape ); false-positive direct Coombs test results in certain patient groups; false-positive protein reactions with sulfosalicylic acid and boiling test, acetic acid test, biuret reaction and nitric acid test but not with bromphenol blue test ( Multistix ).
Dizziness; fatigue; insomnia; reversible hyperactivity; seizures.
Urticaria; dermatitis; vesicular eruptions; erythema multiforme; rashes.
Laryngospasm; laryngeal edema; itchy eyes.
Glossitis; stomatitis; gastritis; sore mouth or tongue; dry mouth; furry tongue; “black hairy” tongue; abnormal taste sensation; anorexia; nausea; vomiting; abdominal pain or cramps; diarrhea or bloody diarrhea; rectal bleeding; flatulence; enterocolitis; pseudomembranous colitis.
Interstitial nephritis (eg, oliguria, proteinuria, hematuria, hyaline casts, pyuria); nephropathy.
Anemias; thrombocytopenia; eosinophilia; leukopenia; granulocytopenia; neutropenia; bone marrow depression; agranulocytosis; reduced hemoglobin or hematocrit; prolonged bleeding and prothrombin time; altered lymphocyte count; increased monocytes, basophils, platelets.
Transient hepatitis; cholestatic jaundice.
Elevated serum alkaline phosphatase and hypernatremia; reduced serum potassium, albumin, total proteins and uric acid.
Hypersensitivity reactions that may lead to death; vaginitis; hyperthermia.
Category B .
Excreted in breast milk.
Reactions range from mild to life-threatening. Administer cautiously to cephalosporin-sensitive patients because of possible cross-reactivity.
May result in bacterial or fungal overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms.
Consider possibility in patients with diarrhea.
- Instruct patient to take antibiotic on empty stomach before (30 min to 1 h) meals or after (2 h) meals with full glass of water.
- Explain that doses should be evenly spaced throughout day and night to maintain adequate drug levels.
- Teach patient signs of sensitivity reaction and appropriate steps to take if occurring.
- Tell patient to discard any liquid solution after 7 days when stored at room temperature or after 14 days of refrigeration.
- Instruct patient to shake bottle before measuring pediatric suspension and to use a medication cup or other calibrated device for accurate dosing.
- Teach patient signs of superinfection, which can occur with any antibiotic (eg, black, furry tongue, vaginal itching) and tell patient to notify health care provider if any occur.
- Instruct patient never to share antibiotic prescriptions with others.
- Advise patient to follow complete course of therapy, even if feeling better.
Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health.