Class: Glucose-elevating agent
- Oral suspension 50 mg/mL
Produces prompt dose-related increase in blood glucose by inhibiting pancreatic insulin release.
90% protein bound. Crosses the placenta.
t ½ is 24 to 36 h. Excreted by kidneys.
Within 1 h.
Less than 8 h.
Special PopulationsRenal Function Impairment
t ½ is prolonged.
Indications and Usage
Management of hypoglycemia caused by hyperinsulinism in adults with inoperable islet cell adenoma or carcinoma, or extrapancreatic malignancy, in infants and children with leucine sensitivity, islet cell hyperplasia, nesidioblastosis, extrapancreatic malignancy, islet cell adenoma or adenomatosis.
Hypersensitivity to thiazides; functional hypoglycemia.
Dosage and AdministrationAdults and Children
PO 3 to 8 mg/kg/day in 2 to 3 equal doses every 8 to 12 h.Infants and Newborns
PO 8 to 15 mg/kg/day in 2 to 3 equal doses every 8 to 12 h.
Store at room temperature. Protect from light.
Drug InteractionsAntihypertensive agents
Enhanced antihypertensive effect.Hydantoins
Possible loss of seizure control.Sulfonylureas
Decreased pharmacologic effects of both drugs.Thiazide diuretics
Increased hyperglycemic and hyperuricemic effects of diazoxide; hypotension.
Laboratory Test Interactions
Hypoglycemia and hyperuricemia produced by diazoxide may affect assessment of these metabolic states. Increased renin secretion and IgG concentrations and decreased cortisol secretion may occur. False-negative insulin response to glucagon may occur.
Tachycardia; palpitations; hypotension; transient hypertension; chest pain.
Headache; weakness; malaise; anxiety; dizziness; insomnia; polyneuritis; paresthesia; extrapyramidal signs; fever.
Hirsutism of lanugo type on forehead, back and limbs; skin rash; pruritus; monilial dermatitis; herpes; loss of scalp hair.
Transient cataracts; subconjunctival hemorrhage; ring scotoma; blurred vision; diplopia; lacrimation.
Anorexia; nausea; vomiting; abdominal pain; ileus; diarrhea; transient loss of taste; acute pancreatitis; pancreatic necrosis.
Azotemia; decreased Ccr; reversible nephrotic syndrome; decreased urinary output; hematuria; albuminuria; glycosuria.
Thrombocytopenia with or without purpura; transient neutropenia; eosinophilia; decreased Hgb or Hct; excessive bleeding; decreased IgG.
Hyperglycemia; increased serum uric acid; gout; galactorrhea; breast lump enlargement; increased AST and alkaline phosphatase.
Sodium and fluid retention; advance in bone age.
Observe for signs of hirsutism. Monitor for signs of ecchymosis, petechiae, or hemorrhage; drug may need to be discontinued.
Category C .
Labor and Delivery
May cause cessation of uterine contractions.
May have decreased protein binding of diazoxide resulting in increased hypotensive effect.
May be higher with liquid than with capsule formulation; use caution when changing dosage forms.
May precipitate CHF in patients with compromised cardiac reserve.
Ketoacidosis and nonketotic hyperosmolar coma
May occur with recommended doses.
- Instruct patient to take medicine as directed at the same time each day.
- Review symptoms of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia with patient and family.
- Advise patient to follow prescribed diet, medication and exercise regimen to prevent hypoglycemic or hyperglycemic reactions.
- Instruct patient to monitor blood glucose, urine glucose and ketones daily.
- Instruct patient to report these symptoms to health care provider: bruising, bleeding, fluid retention.
- Caution patient to avoid sudden position changes to prevent orthostatic hypotension. Inform patient that hirsutism is common adverse reaction but should be reversed when drug is discontinued.
Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health.