Ciprofloxacin

Pronunciation: SIP-roe-FLOX-a-sin
Class: Fluoroquinolone antibiotic

Trade Names

Cetraxal
- Solution, otic 0.2%

Ciloxan
- Ointment, ophthalmic 0.3%
- Solution, ophthalmic 0.3%

Cipro
- Tablets 250 mg
- Tablets 500 mg
- Tablets 750 mg
- Microcapsules for oral suspension 250 mg per 5 mL
- Microcapsules for oral suspension 500 mg per 5 mL

Cipro IV
- Injection, solution, concentrate 10 mg/mL (1%)
- Injection, solution in dextrose 5% water 2 mg/mL (0.2%)

Ciprofloxacin
- Tablets 100 mg
- Tablets, ER 500 mg
- Tablets, ER 1,000 mg

Proquin XR
- Tablets, ER 500 mg

Apo-Ciproflox (Canada)
Cipro XL (Canada)
CO Ciprofloxacin (Canada)
Gen-Ciprofloxacin (Canada)
PMS-Ciprofloxacin (Canada)
RAN-Ciprofloxacin (Canada)
ratio-Ciprofloxacin (Canada)
Sandoz Ciprofloxacin (Canada)
Taro-Ciprofloxacin (Canada)

Pharmacology

Inhibits microbial DNA replication, transcription, repair, and recombination.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

Oral

Rapidly and well absorbed. Bioavailability is approximately 70% to 80%. T max is 1 to 2 h (1 to 4 h for ER; 6 h for Proquin XR ). C max is 1.2 to 5.4 mcg/mL (250 to 1,000 mg for immediate-release); 1.59 to 3.11 mcg/mL (500 to 1,000 mg for ER); 0.82 mcg/mL ( Proquin XR ).

IV

Following 200 and 400 mg IV infusions, C max is 2.1 to 4.6 mcg/mL, respectively.

Otic

C max is anticipated to be less than 5 ng/mL.

Distribution

20% to 40% protein bound. Widely distributed. Diffuses into the CSF, but concentrations are less than 10% of peak serum concentrations. Vd for IV is 2.1 to 2.7 L/kg.

Metabolism

Oral

Four metabolites have been identified that account for approximately 15% of the dose (11% for Proquin XR ); they are less active than the parent compound.

IV

Three metabolites have been identified that account for approximately 10% of the dose.

Elimination

Oral

Approximately 35% is excreted unchanged in urine (30% for Proquin XR ); 20% to 35% is recovered in feces (immediate-release) (43% for Proquin XR ). The serum elimination half-life is approximately 4 h (4.5 h for Proquin XR ). Cl is approximately 300 mL/min.

IV

Approximately 50% to 70% is excreted unchanged in urine; approximately 15% is recovered in feces. The half-life is approximately 5 to 6 h. Cl is approximately 35 L/h.

Special Populations

Renal Function Impairment

The half-life is prolonged.

Hepatic Function Impairment

No changes in pharmacokinetics in patients with chronic liver cirrhosis. Acute hepatic impairment has not been fully evaluated.

Elderly

C max increased 16% to 40%, AUC increased approximately 20% to 30%, and half-life increased approximately 20%.

Indications and Usage

Tablets, oral suspension Adults

Treatment of acute sinusitis, acute uncomplicated cystitis in women, bone and joint infections, chronic bacterial prostatitis, complicated intra-abdominal infections, infectious diarrhea, lower respiratory tract infections, skin and skin structure infections, typhoid fever, uncomplicated cervical and urethral gonorrhea, UTIs, and inhalational anthrax (postexposure).

Children (1 to 17 yr of age)

Treatment of complicated UTIs, pyelonephritis, and inhalation anthrax (postexposure).

ER tablets Adults

Treatment of uncomplicated UTIs, complicated UTIs, acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis.

Proquin XR

Treatment of uncomplicated UTIs.

IV Adults

Treatment of acute sinusitis, bone and joint infections, chronic bacterial prostatitis, complicated intra-abdominal infections, empirical therapy for febrile neutropenic patients, lower respiratory tract infections, nosocomial pneumonia, skin and skin structure infections, UTIs.

Children (1 to 17 yr of age)

Treatment of complicated UTIs and pyelonephritis.

Adults and children

Treatment of inhalational anthrax (postexposure).

Ophthalmic use

Treatment of corneal ulcers (solution only) and conjunctivitis caused by susceptible organisms.

Otic use

Treatment of acute externa caused by susceptible isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus .

Unlabeled Uses

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis; alternative regimen for tularemia; alternative regimen for cutaneous and GI anthrax; alternative therapy for plague; disseminated gonorrhea; cystic fibrosis and gastroenteritis in children; as part of combination therapy for treating atypical mycobacterial infections; traveler's diarrhea.

Contraindications

Coadministration with tizanidine; hypersensitivity to ciprofloxacin, any member of the quinolone class of antimicrobial agents, or any component of the product.

Dosage and Administration

Acute Sinusitis
Adults Mild/Moderate

PO 500 mg immediate-release tablet or IV 400 mg every 12 h for 10 days.

Acute Uncomplicated Pyelonephritis (ER Ciprofloxacin)
Adults

PO 1,000 mg every 24 h for 7 to 14 days.

Bone and Joint Infections
Adults Mild/Moderate

PO 500 mg immediate-release tablet or IV 400 mg every 12 h for at least 4 to 6 wk.

Severe/Complicated

PO 750 mg immediate-release tablet every 12 h or IV 400 mg every 8 h for at least 4 to 6 wk.

Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis
Adults Mild/Moderate

PO 500 mg immediate-release tablet or IV 400 mg every 12 h for 28 days.

Empirical Therapy for Febrile Neutropenic Patients
Adults Severe

IV 400 mg every 8 h plus piperacillin 50 mg/kg (not to exceed 24 g/day) every 4 h for 7 to 14 days.

Infectious Diarrhea
Adults Mild/Moderate/Severe

PO 500 mg immediate-release tablet every 12 h for 5 to 7 days.

Inhalational Anthrax (Postexposure)
Adults

PO 500 mg immediate-release tablet or IV 400 mg every 12 h for 60 days.

Children

PO 15 mg/kg/dose immediate-release tablet (max, 500 mg dose) or IV 10 mg/kg/dose (max, 400 mg dose) every 12 h for 60 days.

Intra-Abdominal Infections
Adults Complicated

PO 500 mg immediate-release tablet or IV 400 mg every 12 h for 7 to 14 days in combination with metronidazole.

Lower Respiratory Tract Infections
Adults Mild/Moderate

PO 500 mg immediate-release tablet or IV 400 mg every 12 h for 7 to 14 days.

Severe/Complicated

PO 750 mg immediate-release tablet every 12 h or IV 400 mg every 8 h for 7 to 14 days.

Nosocomial Pneumonia
Adults Mild/Moderate/Severe

IV 400 mg every 8 h for 10 to 14 days.

Ocular Infections
Corneal ulcers

Solution Day 1: 2 drops in affected eye every 15 min for 6 h, then 2 drops every 30 min for remainder of day 1. Day 2: 2 drops every hour. Days 3 through 14: 2 drops every 4 h. May continue treatment after 14 days if corneal re-epithelialization has not occurred.

Conjunctivitis

Ointment Apply half-inch ribbon into conjunctival sac 3 times daily for the first 2 days, then twice daily for the next 5 days. Solution 1 to 2 drops every 2 h while awake for 2 days, then 1 to 2 drops every 4 h while awake for 5 days.

Otitis Externa
Adults and Children 1 yr of age and older Otic

Instill the contents of 1 single-use container (deliverable volume, 0.25 mL) into the affected ear twice daily (approximately 12 h apart) for 7 days.

Skin and Skin Structure Infections
Adults Mild/Moderate

PO 500 mg immediate-release tablet or IV 400 mg every 12 h for 7 to 14 days.

Severe/Complicated

PO 750 mg immediate-release tablet every 12 h or IV 400 mg every 8 h for 7 to 14 days.

Typhoid Fever
Adults Mild/Moderate

PO 500 mg immediate-release tablet every 12 h for 10 days.

Urethral/Cervical Gonococcal Infections
Adults Uncomplicated

PO 250 mg immediate-release tablet as a single dose.

UTIs
Adults Acute uncomplicated

PO For immediate release, 250 mg every 12 h for 3 days. For ER, PO 500 mg every 24 h for 3 days. For Proquin XR , PO 500 mg once daily for 3 days.

Mild/Moderate

PO 250 mg immediate-release tablet or IV 200 mg every 12 h for 7 to 14 days.

Severe/Complicated

PO 500 mg immediate-release tablet or IV 400 mg every 12 h for 7 to 14 days. For ER, PO 1,000 mg every 24 h for 7 to 14 days.

Complicated UTI or Pyelonephritis
Children 1 to 17 yr of age

PO 10 to 20 mg/kg immediate-release tablet every 12 h (max, 750 mg/dose, even in patients weighing more than 51 kg) or IV 6 to 10 mg/kg every 8 h (max, 400 mg/dose, even in patients weighing more than 51 kg) for 10 to 21 days.

Renal Function Impairment
Adults PO Immediate-release/oral suspension

Usual dosage for CrCl more than 50 mL/min; 250 to 500 mg every 12 h for CrCl 30 to 50 mL/min; 250 to 500 mg every 18 h for CrCl 5 to 29 mL/min; 250 to 500 mg every 24 h (after dialysis) for patients on peritoneal or hemodialysis.

ER

Usual dosage for patients receiving 500 mg; for CrCl less than 30 mL/min, max dose is 500 mg every 24 h. For patients on dialysis, administer dose after dialysis procedure is complete.

Proquin XR

No dosage adjustment is needed for patients with mild to moderate renal impairment.

IV

Usual dosage for CrCl more than 30 mL/min; 200 to 400 mg every 18 to 24 h for CrCl 5 to 29 mL/min.

General Advice

  • Conversion of IV to Oral Dosing With Immediate-Release Tablets or Suspension in Adults
  • 200 mg IV every 12 h equivalent to 250 mg orally every 12 h; 400 mg IV every 12 h equivalent to 500 mg orally every 12 h; 400 mg IV every 8 h equivalent to 750 mg orally every 12 h.
  • Tablets and Suspension
  • Immediate-release tablets and suspension are interchangeable on a mg-to-mg basis.
  • ER tablets and immediate-release tablets are not interchangeable.
  • ER tablets and Proquin XR are not interchangeable.
  • ER tablets are for treatment of UTIs only. Safety and efficacy in treating infections other than UTIs have not been demonstrated. Proquin XR is indicated only for treating uncomplicated UTIs.
  • Administer tablets with a full glass of water without regard to meals. Administer with food if GI upset occurs.
  • Administer ER tablets whole. Do not split, cut, crush, or chew.
  • Administer Proquin XR with a main meal of the day, preferably the evening meal.
  • Do not administer with dairy products or calcium-fortified juices unless they are part of a meal.
  • Administer ciprofloxacin 2 h before or 6 h after magnesium/aluminum antacids, sucralfate, didanosine buffered tablets or pediatric powder, or other products containing calcium, iron, or zinc. Administer Proquin XR at least 4 h before or 2 h after these products.
  • Shake suspension vigorously for 15 sec before measuring dose.
  • Measure and administer prescribed dose of suspension using dosing spoon, syringe, or cup. Caution patient not to chew the microcapsules in the suspension.
  • Suspension cannot be administered through feeding tube.
  • Ophthalmic Solution and Ointment
  • For ophthalmic use only. Not for use on the skin or for injection into eye.
  • Instill prescribed number of drops or ribbon of ointment into affected eye(s).
  • If using other topical ophthalmic drugs, separate each medication by at least 5 min. Instill ointment last.
  • Otic Solution
  • Warm the solution before use by holding the container in hands for 1 min.
  • For otic use only; not for injection, inhalation, or topical ophthalmic use.
  • Injection
  • For IV infusion only. Not for intradermal, subcutaneous, IM, IV bolus, or intra-arterial administration.
  • Injection concentrate must be diluted before administration. Withdraw prescribed dose of concentrate from vial and dilute with a compatible IV solution for a final concentration of 1 to 2 mg/mL. Discard any unused portion of injection concentrate.
  • Compatible IV solutions include sodium chloride 0.9% injection, dextrose 5% injection, sterile water for injection, dextrose 10% for injection, dextrose 5% and sodium chloride 0.225% for injection, dextrose 5% and sodium chloride 0.45% for injection, and Ringer's lactate for injection.
  • Ciprofloxacin in premixed flexible containers does not require further dilution.
  • Infuse prescribed dose over 60 min by direct infusion in a large vein or through a Y-type IV infusion set.
  • If other drugs are being administered through the same IV line, administer each medication separately.

Storage/Stability

Tablets and oral suspension

Store immediate-release tablets below 86°F. Store ER tablets at 59° to 86°F. Store oral suspension below 77°F and protect from freezing. Store reconstituted suspension at room temperature below 86°F. Protect suspension from freezing. Discard any unused suspension after 14 days.

Ophthalmic solution and ointment

Store at 36° to 77°F. Keep containers tightly closed.

Otic solution

Store at 59° to 77°F. Store unused containers in pouch to protect from light.

Injection

Store vials between 41° and 86°F. Store flexible containers for IV infusion between 41° and 77°F. Protect from light, excessive heat, and freezing. Injection concentrate diluted in compatible IV infusion fluid is stable for up to 14 days in refrigerator (36° to 46°F) or at room temperature below 86°F.

Drug Interactions

Antacids (aluminum- and magnesium-containing), calcium, didanosine, iron salts, zinc salts

May decrease oral absorption of fluoroquinolones. Stagger administration times.

Antiarrhythmic agents (eg, amiodarone, disopyramide, quinidine)

The risk of life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias, including torsades de pointes, may be increased.

Anticoagulants

May increase effect of warfarin; monitor PT.

Antineoplastic agents (eg, cytarabine, doxorubicin)

Antineoplastic agents may decrease ciprofloxacin absorption by altering the intestinal mucosa.

Beta-blockers (eg, metoprolol)

The pharmacologic effects of metoprolol and perhaps other beta-blockers may be increased.

Caffeine

Caffeine Cl is reduced.

Chloroquine

Coadministration may decrease absorption of ciprofloxacin.

Clozapine

Clozapine plasma concentrations may be elevated, increasing the risk of adverse reactions.

Corticosteroids

Coadministration of ciprofloxacin and corticosteroids may increase the risk of tendon rupture, especially in elderly patients.

Cyclosporine

Nephrotoxic effects of cyclosporine may be increased; monitor renal function.

Drugs primarily metabolized by CYP1A2 (eg, duloxetine, theophylline, tizanidine)

Ciprofloxacin is an inhibitor of hepatic CYP1A2, and plasma levels of drugs primarily metabolized by CYP1A2 may be elevated, resulting in increased adverse reactions and toxicity.

Foscarnet

The risk of seizures may be increased.

Glyburide

Coadministration has resulted in severe hypoglycemia. Fatalities have been reported.

Lidocaine

Lidocaine plasma levels may be elevated, increasing the risk of toxicity.

MAOIs

Plasma concentrations of MAOI may be increased; dose reduction may be required.

Methadone

Methadone plasma concentrations may be elevated, increasing the pharmacologic effects and adverse reactions.

Methotrexate

Renal tubular transport of methotrexate may be inhibited, increasing methotrexate plasma levels.

Metoclopramide

Rate of ciprofloxacin oral absorption may be accelerated; however, bioavailability is not affected.

Mexiletine

Mexiletine plasma concentrations may be elevated and may produce an increase in adverse reactions.

NSAIDs

Risk of convulsions may be increased in patients receiving high-dose ciprofloxacin.

Olanzapine

Plasma concentrations may be elevated, increasing the risk of adverse reactions (eg, orthostatic hypotension, sedation).

Omeprazole

AUC and C max of ciprofloxacin are reduced by 20% and 23%, respectively.

Phenytoin

Plasma levels of phenytoin may be increased or decreased.

Phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors (eg, sildenafil)

Plasma levels may be elevated by ciprofloxacin, increasing the risk of adverse reactions.

Probenecid

Decreased ciprofloxacin renal Cl.

Procainamide, ropivacaine

Plasma levels may be elevated by ciprofloxacin.

Sevelamer

Bioavailability of ciprofloxacin may be reduced.

Sucralfate

Coadministration may decrease the absorption of ciprofloxacin.

Theophylline

Increased plasma levels of theophylline may result in toxicity and death; monitor theophylline level.

Tizanidine

Plasma levels of tizanidine may be elevated 7-fold, increasing the risk of hypotension and sedation. Coadministration with ciprofloxacin is contraindicated.

Vaccines, live

Ciprofloxacin may decrease the effectiveness of live vaccines when coadministered.

Laboratory Test Interactions

None well documented.

Adverse Reactions

Cardiovascular

Angina pectoris, arrhythmias, atrial flutter, cardiac murmur, cardiopulmonary arrest, CV collapse, cerebral thrombosis, hypertension, hypotension, MI, palpitation, phlebitis, postural hypotension, syncope, tachycardia, torsades de pointes, vasculitis, ventricular ectopy (postmarketing).

CNS

Headache, insomnia, (3%); dizziness (2%); restlessness (more than 1%); abnormal gait, agitation, anxiety, ataxia, confusion, convulsive seizures, delirium, depression, drowsiness, dysphasia, hallucinations, hyperesthesia, hypesthesia, hypertonia, lethargy, light-headedness, malaise, manic reaction, migraine, nightmares, paranoia, paresthesia, peripheral neuropathy, phobia, psychosis, restlessness, tonic-clonic convulsion, toxic psychosis, tremor, twitching, unresponsiveness, weakness (postmarketing).

Dermatologic

Application-site pain (2% to 3%); rash (1%); candidiasis (cutaneous), erythema multiforme, erythema nodosum, exfoliative dermatitis, fixed eruption, hyperpigmentation, petechiae, purpura, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, vesicles (postmarketing).

EENT

Ocular crystalline precipitates (17%); conjunctival hyperemia, foreign body sensation, itching, lid margin crusting (more than 1% to less than 10%); nasopharyngitis, rhinitis (3%); fungal ear superinfection (2% to 3%); eye discomfort, keratopathy (2%); anosmia, blurred vision, burning, chromatopsia, decreased visual acuity, diplopia, discomfort, epistaxis, hearing loss, nystagmus, visual disturbances (postmarketing).

GI

Bad taste after ocular instillation (less than 10%); nausea (4%); diarrhea, vomiting (2%); dyspepsia (1%); C. difficile –associated diarrhea, constipation, dry mouth, dyspepsia, dysphagia, GI bleeding, ileus, intestinal perforation, oral ulcers, pancreatitis, pseudomembranous colitis, taste loss (postmarketing).

Genitourinary

Micturition urgency, vaginal moniliasis (2%); albuminuria, breast pain, candiduria, crystalluria, cylindruria, gynecomastia, hematuria, hemorrhagic cystitis, interstitial nephritis, nephritis, polyuria, renal calculi, renal failure, urethral bleeding, urinary retention, vaginal candidiasis, vaginal pruritus (postmarketing).

Hematologic-Lymphatic

Eosinophilia (more than 1%); agranulocytosis, anemia, bleeding diathesis, decreased or increased PT, hemolytic anemia, immature WBCs, leukocytosis, leukopenia, marrow depression, methemoglobinemia, pancytopenia, purpura, serum sickness (postmarketing).

Hepatic

Elevations of ALT and AST (2%); acute hepatic necrosis or failure, cholestatic jaundice, hepatitis, jaundice (postmarketing).

Hypersensitivity

Allergic reactions ranging from urticaria to anaphylactic reactions, angioedema (postmarketing).

Lab Tests

Decreases in BUN, hematocrit, hemoglobin, leukocyte counts, platelet count, serum albumin, total serum protein, and uric acid; elevated cholesterol; elevated triglycerides; increases in alkaline phosphatase, amylase, atypical lymphocyte count, blood monocytes, BUN, LDH, lipase, platelet count sedimentation rate, serum bilirubin, serum calcium, serum CPK, serum creatinine, serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, serum uric acid, and triglycerides (postmarketing).

Local

Local IV-site reactions (more than 1%).

Metabolic-Nutritional

Acidosis, decreased blood glucose, elevated blood glucose, hyperkalemia, hypokalemia, lymphadenopathy (postmarketing).

Musculoskeletal

Arthralgia, flare-up of gout, hypertonia, joint stiffness, myalgia, myasthenia, myasthenia gravis, myoclonus, tendon rupture, tendonitis (postmarketing).

Respiratory

Asthma (2%); bronchospasm, dyspnea, hemoptysis, pleural effusion; pulmonary embolism, respiratory arrest, respiratory distress (postmarketing).

Miscellaneous

Accidental injury, fungal infections (3%); fever (2%); aches, chills, edema, fever, increased perspiration, pain, photosensitivity, phototoxicity (postmarketing).

Precautions

Warnings

Tendonitis

Ciprofloxacin has been associated with an increased risk of tendonitis and tendon rupture in patients of all ages. The risk is increased in patients older than 60 yr of age, in patients taking corticosteroids, and in patients with kidney, heart, or lung transplants.


Monitor

Ensure CBC (including platelets and differential), renal function, and liver enzymes are evaluated before starting therapy and periodically thereafter during prolonged therapy. Monitor patient's response to therapy. Periodically assess organ system function with prolonged therapy.


Pregnancy

Category C .

Lactation

Excreted in breast milk.

Children

Not drug of first choice in children because of increased incidence of adverse reactions related to joints and surrounding tissue. Do not use ciprofloxacin tablets, oral suspension, or injection in children younger than 18 yr of age, except for listed indications. Do not use ophthalmic solution or otic solution in children younger than 1 yr of age, ophthalmic ointment in children younger than 2 yr of age, or ER tablets in children younger than 18 yr of age.

Elderly

Because of the risk of reduced renal function, take care in dose selection; renal function monitoring may be useful. Elderly patients may be more susceptible to effects on QT interval or tendons.

Ophthalmic

No overall differences in safety and efficacy have been observed between elderly and younger patients.

Hypersensitivity

Serious and potentially fatal reactions have occurred. Discontinue drug if allergic reaction occurs.

Renal Function

Adjust dose downward accordingly.

Superinfection

Use of antibiotics may result in bacterial or fungal overgrowth.

Photosensitivity

Moderate to severe reactions have occurred with some fluoroquinolones; avoid excessive sunlight and discontinue therapy if phototoxicity occurs.

C. difficile –associated diarrhea

Consider possibility in patients with diarrhea.

CNS disorders

Seizures, increased intracranial pressure, and toxic psychosis have been reported. May also cause nervousness, agitation, insomnia, anxiety, nightmares, paranoia, dizziness, confusion, tremors, hallucinations, depression, and rarely, suicidal thoughts or acts. Discontinue therapy and institute appropriate measures if these reactions occur. Use with caution in patients with known or suspected CNS disorders or other risk factors (eg, drug therapy, renal function impairment) that may predispose to seizures or lower the seizure threshold.

Crystalline precipitate

An ocular white crystalline precipitate in superficial portion of corneal defect may occur.

Crystalluria

Has been reported rarely. Avoid alkalinity of the urine and keep patient well hydrated.

ER tablets

Ensure that ER tablets are not used to treat infections other than UTIs.

Peripheral neuropathy

Sensory or sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy resulting in paresthesias, hypoesthesias, dysesthesias, and weakness has been rarely reported. To prevent development of an irreversible condition, discontinue therapy if patient experiences symptoms of neuropathy.

Serious reactions

Clinical manifestations of serious and sometimes fatal reactions that have been reported with ciprofloxacin include acute hepatic necrosis or failure, acute renal insufficiency or failure, agranulocytosis, allergic pneumonitis, anemia (including hemolytic and aplastic), arthralgia, fever, hepatitis, interstitial nephritis, jaundice, leukopenia, myalgia, pancytopenia, rash, serum sickness, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, thrombocytopenia (including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura), toxic epidermal necrolysis, and vasculitis.

Syphilis

Not effective in treatment of syphilis. All patients with gonorrhea should have a serologic test for syphilis at time of diagnosis and 3 mo after treatment with ciprofloxacin.

Tendon ruptures

Achilles and other tendon ruptures requiring surgical repair and prolonged disability have been reported. Risk increased with concomitant corticosteroid therapy, especially in elderly patients. Discontinue use if patient experiences pain, inflammation, or rupture of tendon.

Overdosage

Symptoms

Acute renal failure.

Patient Information

  • Advise patient to review the patient information leaflet carefully before starting therapy and to read and check for new information each time the medication is refilled.
  • Review dosing schedule and prescribed length of therapy with patient.
  • Reinforce to patient or caregiver the need to take exactly as prescribed and complete the entire course of therapy, even if symptoms of infection have disappeared. Caution patient or caregiver that skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may allow the infection to worsen, increase the possibility that the bacteria will become resistant to the antibiotic, and may cause infections that will not be treatable in the future.
  • Advise patient to drink fluids liberally (eg, eight 8 oz glasses of water daily) while taking this medication.
  • Advise patient to discontinue therapy and contact health care provider immediately if fainting, hives, itching, shortness of breath, skin rash, or palpitations occur.
  • Advise patient to discontinue therapy, to rest and refrain from exercise, and to notify health care provider if pain, tenderness, or rupture of tendon occurs.
  • Advise patient that medication may cause nerve problems and to discontinue therapy and notify health care provider immediately if burning, pain, tingling, numbness, and/or weakness develops.
  • Advise patient to report the following signs of superinfection to health care provider: black, furry tongue; foul-smelling stools; vaginal itching or discharge; white patches in mouth.
  • Warn patient that diarrhea containing blood or pus may be a sign of a serious disorder and to seek medical care if noted and not to treat at home.
  • Caution patient that drug may cause dizziness and light-headedness and to use caution while driving or performing other tasks requiring mental alertness until tolerance is determined.
  • Advise patient to limit ingestion of caffeine-containing beverages/products because ciprofloxacin may cause caffeine to accumulate in the body, resulting in exaggerated caffeine effects.
  • Advise patient to avoid unnecessary exposure to sunlight or tanning lamps and to use sunscreen and wear protective clothing to avoid photosensitivity reactions.
  • Tablets and Suspension
  • Advise patient that medication can be taken without regard to meals, but to take with food if GI upset occurs. Proquin XR should be taken with the main meal of the day, preferably in the evening.
  • Advise patient to take ciprofloxacin 2 h before or 6 h after magnesium/aluminum antacids, sucralfate, didanosine buffered tablets or pediatric powder, or other products containing calcium, iron, or zinc. Administer Proquin XR at least 4 h before or 2 h after these products.
  • Caution patient not to take with dairy products or calcium-fortified juices unless they are part of a meal.
  • Instruct patient to take tablets with a full glass of water.
  • Caution patient taking ER tablets to swallow whole and not to chew, crush, or split the tablet.
  • Advise patient that if a dose is missed to take it as soon as remembered. However, if it is nearing the time for the next dose, instruct patient to skip the dose and take the next dose at the regularly scheduled time. Caution patient taking ER tablets to never take more than 1 tablet/day, even if a dose is missed.
  • Instruct patient using oral suspension to shake vigorously for 15 sec before measuring dose.
  • Advise patient to use dosing spoon, syringe, or cup to measure and administer dose. Caution patient not to chew the microcapsules in the suspension.
  • Ophthalmic solution and ointment
  • Remind patient that eye drops and ointment are for use in the eye only.
  • Teach patient, family, or caregiver the following proper technique for instilling eye drops: Wash hands; do not allow dropper to touch eye; tilt head back, look up; pull lower eyelid down; instill prescribed number of drops. Close eye for 1 to 2 min and apply gentle pressure to bridge of nose for 3 to 5 min. Do not rub eye.
  • Teach patient, family, or caregiver the following proper technique for instilling ointment: Wash hands; do not allow tip of tube to touch eye, eyelid, fingers, or any other surface; tilt head back, look up; pull lower eyelid down to form pocket; place prescribed amount of ointment in the pocket. Look downward before closing eye. Do not rub eye.
  • Advise patient that if more than 1 topical ophthalmic drug is being used to administer the drugs at least 5 min apart. Administer ointment last.
  • Inform patient that temporary blurred vision, eye pain, or eye discomfort are the most common adverse reactions and to contact health care provider if they occur and are bothersome.
  • Advise patient to contact health care provider if eye or eyelid inflammation is noted or if eye symptoms do not improve or worsen.
  • Instruct patient not to wear contact lenses if they have signs and symptoms of bacterial conjunctivitis.
  • Otic solution
  • Advise patients to use ciprofloxacin for as long as it is prescribed, even if the symptoms improve.
  • Advise patients to warm the container in their hands for at least 1 min prior to use.
  • Advise patients to lie down with affected ear upwards and instill the contents of 1 container into the ear; maintain this position for at least 1 min and repeat, if necessary, in the opposite ear.

Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health.

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