Artemether / LumefantrinePronunciation: AR-te-meth-er/LOO-me-FAN-treen
Class: Antimalarial preparations
- Tablets artemether 20 mg/lumefantrine 120 mg
Artemether and lumefantrine are blood schizontocides. Artemether is rapidly metabolized into an active metabolite dihydroartemisinin. Artemether and lumefantrine are active against the erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum . Both are shown to inhibit nucleic acid and protein synthesis. The exact mechanism by which they exert antimalarial effect is not well defined.
Special PopulationsRenal Function Impairment
No specific pharmacokinetic studies have been performed.Hepatic Function Impairment
No specific pharmacokinetic studies have been performed.Elderly
No specific pharmacokinetic studies have been performed in patients older than 65 years of age.Children
Systemic exposure is comparable with adult patients.Gender
No clinically relevant effects.
Indications and Usage
Treatment of acute, uncomplicated malaria infections caused by P. falciparum .
Dosage and AdministrationAdults A 3-day treatment schedule with a total of 6 doses is recommended for adult patients with a body weight of 35 kg and above
PO 4 tablets as a single initial dose, 4 tablets again after 8 h, and then 4 tablets twice daily (morning and evening) for the following 2 days (total course of 24 tablets).Children 16 years of age or younger or weighing less than 35 kg
PO A 3-day treatment schedule with a total of 6 doses is recommended as below:35 kg body weight and above
4 tablets as a single initial dose, 4 tablets again after 8 h, and then 4 tablets twice daily (morning and evening) for the following 2 days (total course of 24 tablets).25 kg to less than 35 kg body weight
3 tablets as an initial dose, 3 tablets again after 8 h, and then 3 tablets twice daily (morning and evening) for the following 2 days (total course of 18 tablets).15 kg to less than 25 kg body weight
2 tablets as an initial dose, 2 tablets again after 8 h, and then 2 tablets twice daily (morning and evening) for the following 2 days (total course of 12 tablets).5 kg to less than 15 kg body weight
1 tablet as an initial dose, 1 tablet again after 8 h, and then 1 tablet twice daily (morning and evening) for the following 2 days (total course of 6 tablets).
- Artemether/lumefantrine tablets should be taken with food. Patients should be encouraged to resume normal eating as soon as food can be tolerated since this improves absorption of artemether and lumefantrine.
- For patients who are unable to swallow the tablets such as infants and children, artemether/lumefantrine tablets may be crushed and mixed with a small amount of water (1 to 2 teaspoons) in a clean container for administration immediately prior to use. The container can be rinsed with more water and the contents swallowed by the patient. The crushed tablet preparation should be followed whenever possible by food/drink (eg, milk, formula, pudding, broth, porridge).
- In the event of vomiting within 1 to 2 hours of administration, a repeat dose should be taken. If the repeat dose is vomited, the patient should be given an alternative antimalarial for treatment.
Store at 25°C (77°F).
Drug InteractionsAntibiotics (eg, macrolides, fluoroquinolone, imidazole, triazole antifungals)
Potential for additive effects on the QT interval. Avoid coadministration.Antidepressants
Potential for additive effects on the QT interval. Avoid coadministration.Antimalarials (eg, quinine, quinidine)
Potential for additive effects on the QT interval. Avoid coadministration.Antipsychotics (eg, pimozide, ziprasidone)
Potential for additive effects on the QT interval. Avoid coadministration.Antiretroviral drugs (eg, protease inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors)
May result in increased lumefantrine concentrations causing QT prolongation, decreased concentration of antiretroviral resulting in loss of efficacy, or decrease in artemether/lumefantrine concentrations resulting in loss of efficacy.Contraceptive, hormonal
May reduce the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives. Advise patients to use an additional nonhormonal method of birth control.Cisapride
Potential for additive effects on the QT interval. Avoid coadministration.Class IA antiarrhythmic (eg, quinidine, procainamide, disopyramide)
Potential for additive effects on the QT interval. Avoid coadministration.Class III antiarrhythmic agents (eg, amiodarone, sotalol)
Potential for additive effects on the QT interval. Avoid coadministration.CYP3A4 inducers
May result in decreased concentrations of artemether/lumefantrine and loss of anti-malarial efficacy.CYP3A4 inhibitors (eg, grapefruit juice, ketoconazole)
May result in increased concentrations of artemether/lumefantrine and potentiate QT prolongation.CYP3A4 substrates
May result in decreased concentrations of the substrate and potential loss of substrate efficacy.CYP2D6 metabolized drugs (eg, amitriptyline, clomipramine, flecainide, imipramine)
Coadministration may significantly increase plasma concentrations and increase the risk for adverse effects, including QT interval prolongation.Halofantrine
Potential for additive effects on the QT interval. Avoid coadministration.Mefloquine
If mefloquine is administered immediately prior to artemether/lumefantrine, there may be decreased exposure to lumefantrine. Monitor patients for decreased efficacy and encourage food consumption.Nonsedating antihistaminics (eg, terfenadine, astemizole)
Potential for additive effects on the QT interval. Avoid coadministration.
Laboratory Test Interactions
Headache (56%); dizziness (39%); asthenia (38%); sleep disorder (22%); fatigue (17%); insomnia (5%); malaise, vertigo (3%); agitation, ataxia, clonus, fine motor delay, gait disturbance, hyperreflexia, hypoesthesia, mood swings, nystagmus, tremor (less than 3%).
Pruritis (4%), rash (3%); impetigo, urticaria (less than 3%).
Conjunctivitis, ear infection, tinnitus (less than 3%).
Anorexia (40%); nausea (26%); abdominal pain, vomiting (17%); diarrhea (7%); constipation, dyspepsia, dysphagia, gastroenteritis, peptic ulcer (less than 3%).
Hematuria, proteinuria, UTI (less than 3%).
Splenomegaly (9%); anemia (4%); eosinophilia, hematocrit decreased, lymphocyte morphology abnormal, platelet count decreased, platelet count increased, white blood cell count decreased, white blood cell count increased (less than 3%).
Hepatomegaly (9%); AST increased (4% in children); ALT increased, AST increased (less than 3%).
Angioedema, serious skin reactions (bullous eruption), urticaria (postmarketing).
Arthralgia (34%); myalgia (32%).
Cough (6%, 23% in children); nasopharyngitis (3%); rhinitis (4% in children); asthma, bronchitis, lower respiratory tract infection, pharyngolaryngeal pain, pneumonia, respiratory tract infection, upper respiratory tract infection (less than 3%).
Pyrexia (25%); chills (23%); palpitations (18%); malaria, rash (3%); abscess, acrodermatitis, back pain, helminthic infection, hookworm infection, hypokalemia, influenza, malaria, oral herpes, subcutaneous abscess (less than 3%).
Category C .
Safety and efficacy not established in children who weigh less than 5 kg.
Clinical studies did not include sufficient numbers of patients 65 yr of age and older to determine if they respond differently from younger patients.
Artemether/lumefantrine has not been studied for efficacy and safety in patients with severe renal impairment. No dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment.
Artemether/lumefantrine has not been studied for efficacy and safety in patients with severe hepatic impairment. No dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment.
Plasmodium vivax infection
Effectiveness in treating the erythrocytic stage of P. vivax infection is limited.
Has been associated with prolongation of the QT interval. Monitor for cardiac arrhythmias and signs of QT prolongation.
Patients who remain averse to food during treatment should be closely monitored as the risk of recrudescence may be greater.
- Instruct patients to take with food. Patients who do not have an adequate intake of food are at risk for recrudescence of malaria.
- Instruct patients to inform their health care provider of any personal or family history of QT prolongation or proarrhythmic conditions, such as hypokalemia, bradycardia, or recent myocardial ischemia.
- Instruct patients to inform their health care provider if they are taking any other medications that prolong the QT interval.
- Instruct patients to notify their doctor if they have any symptoms of QT prolongation such as prolonged heart palpitations or loss of consciousness.
- Advise patients that artemether/lumefantrine may reduce the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives. Instruct patients who are using oral, transdermal, or other systemic hormonal contraceptives to use an additional nonhormonal method of birth control.
- Inform patients that hypersensitivity reactions may occur. Instruct patients to discontinue the drug at the first sign of skin rash, hives or other skin reactions, a rapid heartbeat, difficulty in swallowing or breathing, any swelling suggesting angioedema (eg, swelling of the lips, tongue, or face; tightness of the throat; hoarseness), or other symptoms of an allergic reaction.
Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health.
More about artemether/lumefantrine
- Other brands: Coartem