Scientific Name(s): Olea europaea L. Family: Oleaceae
Common Name(s): Olive oil , sweet oil
Olive oil is a nutrient widely used as a salad oil and in cooking. It has also been used as a vehicle for oily suspensions for injections and topically as a demulcent and emollient. Historically, it has been used as a laxative. Olive oil is an element of the Mediterranean diet and is promoted as a beneficial source of dietary fat to improve the lipid profile and reduce cardiovascular morbidity. Clinical trials are limited and generally have been conducted as part of epidemiological studies to validate observed cardiovascular effects.
Trials investigating the effects of olive oil have typically used daily doses ranging from 25 to 40 mL and 8 to 70 g without reported adverse effects. It has been used topically to soften ear wax and incorporated into creams for topical application.
Contraindications have not been identified.
Generally recognized as safe (GRAS) when used as food. Avoid dosages above those found in food because safety and efficacy are unproven.
None well documented.
Ingestion of excessive amounts of olive oil has caused temporary mild diarrhea. Allergic reactions from topical use have been rare.
No toxicology has been reported.
The olive tree is an evergreen, growing to approximately 10 m in height. Native to Mediterranean regions, olive trees also are cultivated in similar climates in the Americas. The small, leathery leaves are gray-green on top with fine, white, scale-like hairs on the undersides. The ellipsoid olive drupe (fruit) measures 2 to 3 cm in length. 1
Records of the olive tree date back to the 17th century BC. It appears to be native to historical Palestine. Ramses II, Egyptian ruler from 1304 and 1237 BC, is said to have used olive oil for every ailment. 2 , 3 , 4
Olive oil is a fixed oil, expressed from ripe olive fruits. It is pale yellow and may have a greenish tint, depending on the ratio of chlorophyll to carotene. Olive oil is composed largely of esters of oleic acid (an n -9 mono-unsaturated fatty acid), forming approximately 80% of the total fatty acid content. Linoleic acid (a polyunsaturated fatty acid) and saturated palmitic acid form the balance of the fatty acid content.
In addition, approximately 200 other chemical compounds have been identified in the oil including tocopherols, beta-carotene, phytosterols, pigments, terpenic acids, flavonoids (luteolin, quercetin, squalene), and phenolic compounds (eg, oleuropein, tyrosol).
Composition of the oil depends on the cultivar, stage of drupe maturity, climate, and other factors. Olive oil is offered in several grades of purity, including virgin oil (initial unrefined oil from first fruit pressing) or pure (lower quality from subsequent pressings). Chemically, the difference between extra virgin and virgin oils pertains to the amount of free oleic acid permitted (4% free oleic acid in virgin; 1% in extra virgin).
Thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography analyses are used to detect adulteration of the oil with foreign oils (eg, cottonseed, peanut, sesame). Limits are set for the amounts of saturated fatty acid chain lengths and number of sterols. 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8
Uses and Pharmacology
Olive oil is a nutrient widely used as a salad oil and in cooking, and is a common element in the Mediterranean diet. 4 , 9 , 10 Studies have sought to establish outcomes related to differing phenolic (and other) content of the oil 11 and the detrimental effect of heating. 12 , 13 , 14 Most, but not all, studies have shown a concentration-dependent effect of phenolic content on activity of the oil; higher phenolic content is equated with greater benefit.Cardiovascular conditions
The relative safety of olive oil and the availability of randomized clinical trials in humans render data from animal trials mostly irrelevant.Clinical data
Interest in the potential of olive oil to reduce cardiovascular disease has derived from epidemiological studies correlating consumption of Mediterranean diets rich in olive oil with positive health outcomes, as well as the PREDIMED 5-year Mediterranean diet intervention study. 6 , 15 Few clinical studies exist with sound methodology which nonsurrogate markers of cardiovascular outcomes were utilized. Olive oil has been used as placebo in trials of omega-3 supplementation after coronary surgery. 16 , 17
Mechanisms proposed for olive oil's activity include its influence on the lipid profile; 13 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 markers of endothelial function, inflammation, and coagulation; 10 , 11 , 23 nitric oxide production; low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation; plasma antioxidant capacity; 12 , 13 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 24 , 25 , 26 and serum insulin/glucose response. 21 , 22 , 27
In normotensive and hypertensive elderly patients, consumption of olive oil reduced systolic blood pressure but not necessarily diastolic pressure. 28 , 29 , 30 Olive oil consumption lowered systolic blood pressure in patients with stable coronary heart disease 31 but not in patients with chronic heart failure. 32
Markers of atherosclerosis have been studied in healthy volunteers, in hyperlipidemic and stable coronary heart disease patients, and in elderly patients, including subpopulations of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EUROLIVE) and Three-City study. 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , 39 In most analyses, decreased inflammatory status was associated with the intake of phenolic-rich olive oil; however, some studies found only marginal benefits. 34 , 35 , 40 , 41
Studies in healthy volunteers and in hyperlipidemic adults and children have generally shown improved lipid profile with consumption of virgin olive oil. 19 , 22 , 41 , 42 , 43 , 44 , 45 Increases in phenolic and oleic acid content of the LDL were measured in EUROLIVE study participants and probably contributed to decreased LDL-oxidation. 26 , 43 , 46 , 47
In the PREDIMED clinical trial, high adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with decreases in the occurrence of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. 15 , 48 , 49 In patients with metabolic syndrome, consumption of olive oil 8 g/day over a 2-year period reduced insulin resistance, mean body weight, and cardiovascular risk. 50Cancer
Olive oil and cancer prevention have been inversely correlated in experimental models with animals. In rats, olive oil had no colon tumor-enhancing effects compared with other fatty-type diets. 51 Olive oil may influence carcinogenic processes via signaling pathways, reduced oxidative stress (due to antioxidant oleic acid, vitamin E, and polyphenol content), and reduced DNA damage. Oleic acid may also regulate receptors, such as human epidermal growth factor 2. 23 , 52Clinical data
Despite concerns that monounsaturated oils, such as olive oil, are weak promoters of certain cancers (eg, breast, colon) compared with n -6 polyunsaturated oils, 53 reviews of epidemiological case-control datasets have found olive oil to be potentially protective against upper GI tract cancers (oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, and larynx) but equivocal regarding colorectal cancers. 52 , 54 For high levels of olive oil consumption, a meta-analysis of the available data for breast and gynecological cancers is supportive of a risk reduction of 0.62 (95% confidence interval, 0.44 to 0.88). 52 Heterocyclic amines released during cooking have been shown to be mutagenic in bacterial and animal studies. A large, multicenter, case-control study evaluated the potential effect of fried foods on colorectal cancers (1,394 colon cancer, 886 rectal cancer, 4,765 controls). Use of olive oil in frying demonstrated a positive effect in colon cancer risk reduction but not in rectal cancer. 55Clinical nutrition
The relative safety of olive oil and the availability of randomized clinical trials in humans render data from animal trials mostly irrelevant.Clinical data
The use of olive oil as a nutritional source in intensive care and high-risk surgery patients and in neonates has been studied. Olive oil is well tolerated, and decreases in intensive care unit stay and infection rates have been demonstrated in surgical patients. 56 , 57 , 58 In preterm infants, olive oil has been compared with soybean oil or usual parenteral nutrition. Trials are generally small; however, olive oil supplementation appears to be safe and well tolerated and achieves the targeted essential fatty acid and lipid profiles. However, effects on LDL oxidation and immune status are equivocal. 59 , 60 , 61 , 62 , 63Other uses
It is used as a vehicle for oily suspensions for injection and is a drug solvent; it has also been used to soften ear wax. 3 , 64 In elderly patients, it has been used in cognitive function clinical trials, as well as in studies of rheumatoid arthritis as the comparator (placebo) oil. 65 , 66Antibacterial
The plaque-inhibitory action of an olive oil dentifrice has been demonstrated. Adhesion and growth of bacteria were inhibited with olive oil in comparison with conventional fluoride wash. 67 In other experiments, olive oil exhibited in vitro antimicrobial properties against gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and enterotoxin B production by Staphylococcus aureus . 68 , 69Dermatitis
Applied topically, olive oil acts as a demulcent and emollient. It is used in massage and to soften the skin in eczema and psoriasis, as well as to prevent stretch marks. Olive oil is used in the preparation of soaps, ointments, and liniments. 3 A clinical study of virgin olive oil and virgin coconut oil found both oils to be effective in reducing dermatitis symptoms. 70 In preterm infants, 4 weeks of daily olive oil-based cream was more effective than an emollient with regard to dermatitis. 71GI
Olive oil is a mild laxative and has been used as an intestinal lubricant. 64 , 72 There are claims that it is useful for gall bladder problems, including cholecystitis and cholelithiasis; however, the effectiveness of olive oil for such conditions is not well documented. 73Rheumatoid arthritis
Olive oil has been used as a placebo in many trials studying oils. In a placebo-controlled trial of fish oils in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, improvement in the disease process was noted in both groups, despite methodological limitations of the study. 74
Trials investigating the effects of olive oil have typically used daily doses ranging from 25 18 to 40 mL 25 and 8 50 to 70 g 24 without reported adverse reactions. It has also been used topically to soften ear wax and incorporated into creams for topical application. 71 , 73
GRAS status when used as food. Avoid dosages above those found in food because safety and efficacy are unproven. A clinical study used daily olive oil (4 g) as a comparator oil in pregnant women at 30 weeks gestation and followed them through to delivery. Olive oil was assumed to be inert and no adverse events were reported at this dose. 75
None well documented.
Information is lacking.
Bibliography1. Olea europaea L. USDA, NRCS. 2007. The PLANTS Database ( http://plants.usda.gov , 13 February 2007). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.
2. Robbers JE, Speedie MK, Tyler VE, eds. Pharmacognosy and Pharmacobiotechnology . Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins; 1996:70-71.
3. Evans WC. Trease and Evans' Pharmacognosy . 14th ed. London: WB Saunders; 1996:185-186.
4. Carper J. The Food Pharmacy . New York, NY: Bantam Books; 1989:242-245.
5. Reynolds JE, ed. The Extra Pharmacopoeia: Martindale . 31st ed. London: Royal Pharmaceutical Society; 1996:1734.
6. Visioli F, Poli A, Gall C. Antioxidant and other biological activities of phenols from olives and olive oil. Med Res Rev . 2002;22(1):65-75.
7. de la Lastra Romero CA. An up-date of olive oil and bioactive constituents in health: molecular mechanisms and clinical implications. Curr Pharm Des . 2011;17(8):752-753.
8. Bermudez B, Lopez S, Ortega A, et al. Oleic acid in olive oil: from a metabolic framework toward a clinical perspective. Curr Pharm Des . 2011;17(8):831-843.
9. Haber B. The Mediterranean diet: a view from history. Am J Clin Nutr . 1997;66(4 suppl):1053S-1057S.
10. Lucas L, Russell A, Keast R. Molecular mechanisms of inflammation. Anti-inflammatory benefits of virgin olive oil and the phenolic compound oleocanthal. Curr Pharm Des . 2011;17(8):754-768.
11. Delgado-Lista J, Garcia-Rios A, Perez-Martinez P, Lopez-Miranda J, Perez-Jimenez F. Olive oil and haemostasis: platelet function, thrombogenesis and fibrinolysis. Curr Pharm Des . 2011;17(8):778-785.
12. Sutherland WH, de Jong SA, Walker RJ, et al. Effect of meals rich in heated olive and safflower oils on oxidation of postprandial serum in healthy men. Atherosclerosis . 2002;160(1):195-203.
13. St-Onge MP, Lamarche B, Mauger JF, Jones PJ. Consumption of a functional oil rich in phytosterols and medium-chain triglyceride oil improves plasma lipid profiles in men. J Nutr . 2003;133(6):1815-1820.
14. Rueda-Clausen CF, Silva FA, Lindarte MA, et al. Olive, soybean and palm oils intake have a similar acute detrimental effect over the endothelial function in healthy young subjects. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis . 2007;17(1):50-57.
15. Babio N, Bulló M, Basora J, et al.; Nureta-PREDIMED Investigators. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and risk of metabolic syndrome and its components. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis . 2009;19(8):563-570.
16. Saravanan P, Bridgewater B, West AL, O'Neill SC, Calder PC, Davidson NC. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation does not reduce risk of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass surgery: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol . 2010;3(1):46-53.
17. Heidarsdottir R, Arnar DO, Skuladottir GV, et al Does treatment with n -3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent atrial fibrillation after open heart surgery? Europace . 2010;12(3):356-363.
18. Weinbrenner T, Fitó M, Farré Albaladejo M, et al. Bioavailability of phenolic compounds from olive oil and oxidative/antioxidant status at postprandial state in healthy humans. Drugs Exp Clin Res . 2004;30(5-6):207-212.
19. Marrugat J, Covas MI, Fitó M, et al. Effects of differing phenolic content in dietary olive oils on lipids and LDL oxidationa randomized controlled trial. Eur J Nutr . 2004;43(3):140-147.
20. Nielsen NS, Pedersen A, Sandström B, Marckmann P, Høy CE. Different effects of diets rich in olive oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower-seed oil on postprandial lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and on lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility. Br J Nutr . 2002;87(5):489-499.
21. Thomsen C, Storm H, Holst JJ, Hermansen K. Differential effects of saturated and monounsaturated fats on postprandial lipemia and glucagon-like peptide 1 responses in patients with type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr . 2003;77(3):605-611.
22. Mekki N, Charbonnier M, Borel P, et al. Butter differs from olive oil and sunflower oil in its effects on postprandial lipemia and triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins after single mixed meals in healthy young men. J Nutr . 2002;132(12):3642-3649.
23. Visioli F, Bernardini E. Extra virgin olive oil's polyphenols: biological activities. Curr Pharm Des . 2011;17(8):786-804.
24. Moschandreas J, Vissers MN, Wiseman S, van Putte KP, Kafatos A. Extra virgin olive oil phenols and markers of oxidation in Greek smokers: a randomized cross-over study. Eur J Clin Nutr . 2002;56(10):1024-1029.
25. Covas MI, de la Torre K, Farré-Albaladejo M, et al. Postprandial LDL phenolic content and LDL oxidation are modulated by olive oil phenolic compounds in humans. Free Radic Biol Med . 2006;40(4):608-616.
26. Aguilera CM, Mesa MD, Ramirez-Tortosa MC, Nestares MT, Ros E, Gil A. Sunflower oil does not protect against LDL oxidation as virgin olive oil does in patients with peripheral vascular disease. Clin Nutr . 2004;23(4):673-681.
27. Wallace AJ, Sutherland WH, Mann JI, Williams SM. The effect of meals rich in thermally stressed olive and safflower oils on postprandial serum paraoxonase activity in patients with diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr . 2001;55(11):951-958.
28. Psaltopoulou T, Naska A, Orfanos P, Trichopoulos D, Mountokalakis T, Trichopoulou A. Olive oil, the Mediterranean diet, and arterial blood pressure: the Greek European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Am J Clin Nutr . 2004;80(4):1012-1018.
29. Perona JS, Cañizares J, Montero E, Sánchez-Domínguez JM, Ruiz-Gutiérrez V. Plasma lipid modifications in elderly people after administration of two virgin olive oils of the same variety ( Olea europaea var. hojiblanca) with different triacylglycerol composition. Br J Nutr . 2003;89(6):819-826.
30. Perona JS, Cañizares J, Montero E, Sánchez-Domínguez JM, Ruiz-Gutiérrez V. Virgin olive oil reduces blood pressure in hypertensive elderly subjects. Clin Nutr . 2004;23(5):1113-1121.
31. Fitó M, Cladellas M, de la Torre R, et al. Antioxidant effect of virgin olive oil in patients with stable coronary heart disease: a randomized, crossover, controlled, clinical trial. Atherosclerosis . 2005;181(1):149-158.
32. Morgan DR, Dixon LJ, Hanratty CG, et al. Effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in patients with chronic heart failure. Am J Cardiol . 2006;97(4):547-551.
33. Konstantinidou V, Covas MI, Muñoz-Aguayo D, et al. In vivo nutrigenomic effects of virgin olive oil polyphenols within the frame of the Mediterranean diet: a randomized controlled trial. FASEB J . 2010;24(7):2546-2557.
34. Papageorgiou N, Tousoulis D, Psaltopoulou T, et al. Divergent anti-inflammatory effects of different oil acute consumption on healthy individuals. Eur J Clin Nutr . 2011;65(4):514-519.
35. Fitó M, Cladellas M, de la Torre R, et al for SOLOS Investigators. Anti-inflammatory effect of virgin olive oil in stable coronary disease patients: a randomized, crossover, controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr . 2008;62(4):570-574.
36. Bogani P, Galli C, Villa M, Visioli F. Postprandial anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of extra virgin olive oil. Atherosclerosis . 2007;190(1):181-186.
37. Ruano J, López-Miranda J, de la Torre R, et al. Intake of phenol-rich virgin olive oil improves the postprandial prothrombotic profile in hypercholesterolemic patients. Am J Clin Nutr . 2007;86(2):341-346.
38. Camargo A, Ruano J, Fernandez JM, et al. Gene expression changes in mononuclear cells in patients with metabolic syndrome after acute intake of phenol-rich virgin olive oil. BMC Genomics . 2010;11:253.
39. Samieri C, Féart C, Proust-Lima C, et al. Olive oil consumption, plasma oleic acid, and stroke incidence: the Three-City Study. Neurology . 2011;77(5):418-25.
40. Machowetz A, Gruendel S, Garcia AL, et al. Effect of olive oil consumption on serum resistin concentrations in healthy men. Horm Metab Res . 2008;40(10):697-701.
41. Damasceno NR, Pérez-Heras A, Serra M, et al. Crossover study of diets enriched with virgin olive oil, walnuts or almonds. Effects on lipids and other cardiovascular risk markers. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis . 2011;21(suppl 1):S14-S20.
42. Estévez-González MD, Saavedra-Santana P, López-Ríos L, et al. HDL cholesterol levels in children with mild hypercholesterolemia: effect of consuming skim milk enriched with olive oil and modulation by the TAQ 1B polymorphism in the CETP gene. Ann Nutr Metab . 2010;56(4):288-293.
43. de la Torre-Carbot K, Chávez-Servín JL, Jaúregui O, et al. Elevated circulating LDL phenol levels in men who consumed virgin rather than refined olive oil are associated with less oxidation of plasma LDL. J Nutr . 2010;140(3):501-508.
44. Razquin C, Martinez JA, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Mitjavila MT, Estruch R, Marti A. A 3 years follow-up of a Mediterranean diet rich in virgin olive oil is associated with high plasma antioxidant capacity and reduced body weight gain. Eur J Clin Nutr . 2009;63(12):1387-1393.
45. Visioli F, Caruso D, Grande S, et al. Virgin Olive Oil Study (VOLOS): vasoprotective potential of extra virgin olive oil in mildly dyslipidemic patients. Eur J Nutr . 2005;44(2):121-127.
46. Cicero AF, Nascetti S, López-Sabater MC, et al for EUROLIVE Study Group. Changes in LDL fatty acid composition as a response to olive oil treatment are inversely related to lipid oxidative damage: The EUROLIVE study. J Am Coll Nutr . 2008;27(2):314-320.
47. Gimeno E, de la Torre-Carbot K, Lamuela-Raventós RM, et al. Changes in the phenolic content of low density lipoprotein after olive oil consumption in men. A randomized crossover controlled trial. Br J Nutr . 2007;98(6):1243-1250.
48. Salas-Salvadó J, Bulló M, Babio N, et al for PREDIMED Study Investigators. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with the Mediterranean diet: results of the PREDIMED-Reus nutrition intervention randomized trial. Diabetes Care . 2011;34(1):14-19.
49. Pérez-Martínez P, García-Ríos A, Delgado-Lista J, Pérez-Jiménez F, López-Miranda J. Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil and obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus. Curr Pharm Des . 2011;17(8):769-777.
50. Esposito K, Marfella R, Ciotola M, et al. Effect of a mediterranean-style diet on endothelial dysfunction and markers of vascular inflammation in the metabolic syndrome: a randomized trial. JAMA . 2004;292(12):1440-1446.
51. Reddy BS. Dietary fat and colon cancer: animal model studies. Lipids . 1992;27(10):807-813.
52. Pelucchi C, Bosetti C, Negri E, Lipworth L, La Vecchi C. Olive oil and cancer risk: an update of epidemiological findings through 2010. Curr Pharm Des . 2011;17(8):805-812.
53. Weisburger JH. Dietary fat and risk of chronic disease: mechanistic insights from experimental studies. J Am Diet Assoc . 1997;97(7 suppl):S16-S23.
54. Gallus S, Bosetti C, Franceschi S, Levi F, Negri E, La Vecchia C. Laryngeal cancer in women: tobacco, alcohol, nutritional, and hormonal factors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev . 2003;12(6):514-517.
55. Galeone C, Talamini R, Levi F, et al. Fried foods, olive oil and colorectal cancer. Ann Oncol . 2007;18(1):36-39.
56. Huschak G, Zur Nieden K, Hoell T, Riemann D, Mast H, Stuttmann R. Olive oil based nutrition in multiple trauma patients: a pilot study. Intensive Care Med . 2005;31(9):1202-1208.
57. Badía-Tahull MB, Llop-Talaverón JM, Leiva-Badosa E, et al. A randomised study on the clinical progress of high-risk elective major gastrointestinal surgery patients treated with olive oil-based parenteral nutrition with or without a fish oil supplement. Br J Nutr . 2010;104(5):737-741.
58. Onar P, Yildiz BD, Yildiz EA, Besler T, Abbasoglu O. Olive oil-based fat emulsion versus soy oil-based fat emulsion in abdominal oncologic surgery. Nutr Clin Pract . 2011;26(1):61-65.
59. Göbel Y, Koletzko B, Böhles HJ, et al. Parenteral fat emulsions based on olive and soybean oils: a randomized clinical trial in preterm infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr . 2003;37(2):161-167.
60. Deshpande GC, Simmer K, Mori T, Croft K. Parenteral lipid emulsions based on olive oil compared with soybean oil in preterm (<28 weeks' gestation) neonates: a randomised controlled trial. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr . 2009;49(5):619-625.
61. Webb AN, Hardy P, Peterkin M, et al. Tolerability and safety of olive oil-based lipid emulsion in critically ill neonates: a blinded randomized trial. Nutrition . 2008;24(11-12):1057-1064.
62. Gawecka A, Michalkiewicz J, Kornacka MK, L. Immunologic properties differ in preterm infants fed olive oil vs soy-based lipid emulsions during parenteral nutrition. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr . 2008;32(4):448-453.
63. Hartman C, Ben-Artzi E, Berkowitz D, et al. Olive oil-based intravenous lipid emulsion in pediatric patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation: a short-term prospective controlled trial. Clin Nutr . 2009;28(6):631-635.
64. Bruneton J. Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants . Paris, France: Lavoisier; 1995:127-129.
65. Dangour AD, Allen E, Elbourne D, et al. Effect of 2-y n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on cognitive function in older people; a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr . 2010;91(6):1725-1732.
66. Chiu CC, Su KP, Cheng TC, et al. The effects of omega-3 fatty acids monotherapy in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: a preliminary randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry . 2008;32(6):1538-1544.
67. Pretty IA, Gallagher MJ, Martin MV, Edgar WM, Higham SM. A study to assess the effects of a new detergent-free, olive oil formulation dentifrice in vitro and in vivo. J Dent . 2003;31(5):327-332.
68. Tranter HS, Tassou SC, Nychas GJ. The effect of the olive phenolic compound, oleuropein, on growth and enterotoxin B production by Staphylococcus aureus . J Appl Bacteriol . 1993;74(3):253-259.
69. Fleming HP, Walter WM Jr, Etchells JL. Antimicrobial properties of oleuropein and products of its hydrolysis from green olives. Appl Microbiol . 1973;26(5):777-782.
70. Verallo-Rowell VM, Dillague KM, Syah-Tjundawan BS. Novel antibacterial and emollient effects of coconut and virgin olive oils in adult atopic dermatitis. Dermatitis . 2008;19(6):308-315.
71. Kiechl-Kohlendorfer U, Berger C, Inzinger R. The effect of daily treatment with an olive oil/lanolin emollient on skin integrity in preterm infants: a randomized controlled trial. Pediatr Dermatol . 2008;25(2):174-178.
72. Abut E, Guveli H, Yasar B, et al. Administration of olive oil followed by a low volume of polyethylene glycol-electrolyte lavage solution improves patient satisfaction with right-side colonic cleansing over administration of the conventional volume of polyethylene glycol-electrolyte lavage solution for colonoscopy preparation. Gastrointest Endosc . 2009;70(3):515-521.
73. Blumenthal M, Busse WR, eds. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines . Austin, TX: American Botanical Council; Boston, MA: Integrative Medicine Communications; 1998.
74. Berbert AA, Kondo CR, Almendra CL, Matsuo T, Dichi I. Supplementation of fish oil and olive oil in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Nutrition . 2005;21(2):131-136.
75. Olsen SF, Østerdal ML, Salvig JD, et al. Fish oil intake compared with olive oil intake in late pregnancy and asthma in the offspring: 16 y of registry-based follow-up from a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr . 2008;88(1):167-175.
Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health