Kinetin

Scientific Name(s):N 6 -furfuryladenine, N-(2-furanylmethyl)-1H-purin-6-amine, 6-furfurylaminopurine

Common Name(s): Kinetin

Uses

Kinetin functions as an essential growth hormone, which can influence cell growth and differentiation. It can delay and offset aging characteristics such as cell growth rate and size. It is claimed to reduce wrinkles and improve skin texture, telangiectasia, and mottled hyperpigmentation, although there is limited information to support this.

Dosing

There is no available information on appropriate human doses of this plant growth hormone.

Contraindications

Contraindications have not yet been identified.

Pregnancy/Lactation

Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking.

Interactions

None well documented.

Adverse Reactions

There is a very low incidence of side effects when used topically. Common side effects include erythema, peeling, burning, and stinging.

Toxicology

Research reveals little or no information regarding toxicology with the use of this product.

Botany

Kinetin, a cytokinin and plant hormone, is a cell division factor found in plant parts and yeast. 1 Kinetin has also been detected in freshly extracted DNA from human cells. 2

History

Plant hormones, or cytokinins, were named for their ability to stimulate cell division (cytokinesis). 3 The first known cytokinin was a component of coconut milk. This was used as a standard additive to plant tissue cultures in the lab because of its ability to make plant cells divide. Cytokinins were eventually isolated from coconut milk, immature organs of corn, and various other sources. 4 Studies dating back to the mid-1950s describe the structure and synthesis of kinetin specifically. 1

Kinetin has been advertised as an antiaging product for wrinkled skin treatment. Kinerase is a cream/lotion containing a 0.1% kinetin concentration. 5

Chemistry

Cytokinins are N 6 -substituted adenine derivatives. 6 The furfuryl moiety of kinetin is reported to originate from furfural, a primary oxidation product of the deoxyribose in DNA. 7 N 6 -furfuryladenine has electrochemical properties. Electrochemical assignments have been confirmed from kinetin using mass-spectrometric analysis. 2

Studies have reported the following: Isolation of kinetin from autoclaved water slurries of DNA, structure determination, and physiologic activity at high dilutions in the presence of auxin. 1

Uses and Pharmacology

Cytokinins function as essential growth hormones, which can influence cell growth and differentiation in plant and non-plant tissues. 6 , 7 Kinetin can be formed in vivo, neutralizing harmful properties of hydroxyl radical reaction products. This is a defense mechanism in response to oxidative stress of cells. 8 Degradation of sugar residues in DNA is a major route of this cellular damage. 7 Kinetin-activated, major nucleolar organizer regions in basal, equatorial, and near-apical tissue of onion (leaf base) suggest it to be a regulator. 9

Cosmetic effects

The skin care product Kinerase claims to be a “nature-identical” plant growth factor, which “delays and improves unwanted changes in appearance and texture of photodamaged skin.” It allegedly reduces wrinkles and improves skin texture, telangiectasia, and mottled hyperpigmentation.

Animal data

Single-celled yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae , used as a model, demonstrated spore formation at micromolar concentrations of kinetin. 6 Another report finds kinetin to delay aging and prolong lifespan of the fruitfly Zaprionus paravittiger . 10 Addition of kinetin in a culture medium of human cells can delay and offset aging characteristics such as growth rate and cell size. 11 The amount of DNA in the nuclei of the fibroblast cells increased in the presence of kinetin from human skin. 12

Clinical data

Results are typically seen in 4 to 6 weeks. Product literature compares Kinerase with the prescription cream Renova (0.05% tretinoin), finding Kinerase to be superior to Renova parameters by patient self-assessment at a 24-week period. There was an incidence of side effects using Kinerase vs Renova (eg, erythema, peeling, burning, and stinging). 5

Dosage

There is no available information on appropriate human doses of this plant growth hormone.

Pregnancy/Lactation

Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking.

Interactions

Research reveals little or no information regarding toxicology with the use of this product.

Adverse Reactions

The makers of Kinerase claim its use is associated with virtually no skin irritation, no thinning of the skin, no restrictions in pregnant or nursing women, no restrictions on duration of use, etc. The product is reportedly hypoallergenic and noncomedogenic and has no known interactions with drugs or other products. 5

Toxicology

Computer literature searches found no information on toxicology of kinetin.

Bibliography

1. Budavari S, O'Neil MJ, Smith A, Heckelman PE, eds. The Merck Index 11th ed . Rahway, NJ: Merck & Co., Inc. 1989;837.
2. Barciszewski J, Siboska GE, Pedersen BO, Clark BF, Rattan SI. Evidence for the presence of kinetin in DNA and cell extracts. FEBS Lett . 1996;393:197-200.
3. Starr C, Taggart R. Biology — The Unity and Diversity of Life, 4th ed . Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co. 1987;286.
4. Arms K, Camp PS. Biology, 2nd ed . New York, NY: Saunders Publishing, Co. 1982:786.
5. Kinerase product information. Available at: http://www.dermcosmetic.com/kinerase.html . Accessed July 12, 1999.
6. Laten HM. Cytokinins affect spore formation but not cell division in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Biochimica et Biophysica Acta . 1995;1266:45-49.
7. Barciszewski J, Siboska GE, Pedersen BO, Clark BF, Rattan SI. Furfural, a precursor of the cytokinin hormone kinetin, and base propenals are formed by hydroxyl radical damage of DNA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun . 1997;238:317-319.
8. Barciszewski J, Siboska GE, Pedersen BO, Clark BF, Rattan SI. A mechanism for the in vivo formation of N6-furfuryladenine, kinetin, as a secondary oxidative damage product of DNA. FEBS Lett . 1997;414:457-460.
9. Karagiannis CS, Pappelis AJ. Effect of abscisic acid, gibberellic acid, indoleacetic acid, and kinetin on selective ribosomal cistron regulation in quiescent and senescent onion leaf base tissue. Mech Ageing Dev . 1994;76:145-155.
10. Sharma SP, Kaur P, Rattan SI. Plant growth hormone kinetin delays ageing, prolongs the lifespan, and slows down development of the fruitfly Zaprionus paravittiger . Biochem Biophys Res Commun . 1995;216:1067-1071.
11. Rattan SI, Clark BF. Kinetin delays the onset of ageing characteristics in human fibroblasts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun . 1994;201:665-672.
12. Kowalska E. Influence of kinetin (6-furfurylo-amino-purine) on human fibroblasts in the cell culture. Folia Morphol (Warsz) . 1992;51:109-118.

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