Goat's Rue

Scientific Name(s): Galega officinalis L. Fam: Fabaceae (beans)

Common Name(s): Goat's rue , French lilac , Italian fitch

Uses

Goat's rue derivatives have been associated with reductions in blood sugar levels, but more study is needed. Goat's rue is also a well-known diuretic and increases breast milk production. Other effects include use as a tonic, liver-protectant, and as a platelet aggregation inhibitor.

Dosing

There are no recent clinical studies of goat's rue herb to provide a basis for dosage recommendations. Classical use of the herb was 2 g in an infusion.

Contraindications

Contraindications have not yet been identified.

Pregnancy/Lactation

Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking.

Interactions

Possible interactions may exist with other hypoglycemic medications. Goat's rue may interfere with absorption of iron and other minerals.

Adverse Reactions

Discontinue use if symptoms such as headache, jitteriness, or weakness occur. The safety of the plant has not been proven in pregnancy or breastfeeding. Goat's rue may interfere with the absorption of iron and other minerals.

Toxicology

In humans, danger of intoxication has been observed with other guanidine derivatives.

Botany

Originating in Europe and Asia, goat's rue thrives in temperate regions. The plant prefers damp, low-lying areas and sandy soil. Goat's rue is a perennial herb, growing to > 1 m in height. Its leaves are compound with lance-shaped ends, and the fruit consists of a round, indented pod containing many seeds. The flowers are white, lilac, light blue, or pinkish in color and grow on terminal spikes. These dried, above-ground parts, harvested during the summer flowering season, are the parts of the plant used medicinally. The plant has no scent unless bruised, when it emits a disagreeable odor, perhaps how the name “goat's rue” originated. Goat's rue should not be confused with “rue” ( Ruta graveolens ). 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6

History

Goat's rue has been employed as a vermifuge, to treat snakebites, and to aid in treating the plague. It was believed to have been used as a diuretic and tonic in typhoid conditions and also as a nervous system stimulant. 2 , 5 , 6 Culpepper suggested goat's rue as a soak for tired feet and for cheese making. 5 Hill's Universal Herbal (1832) mentions the dried flowers of goat's rue being added to boiling water as an infusion and then taken to induce sweating and aid in fevers. 5 The plant is widely cultivated as cattle feed. 2

Chemistry

Guanidine derivatives are present in all parts of goat's rue and include galegine (isoamylene-guanidine) and hydroxygalegine. 1 , 2 Several older reports confirm the presence of galegine and related compounds. 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 A later study discusses the presence of several guanidine derivatives, including galegine and 4-hydroxygalegine flavones, and flavone glycosides. 13 Flavonol triglycosides kaempferol and quercetin derivatives have been found in the plant, 14 as have norterpenoid and sesquiterpenoid glycosides, including a rare dearabinosyl pneumonanthoside. 15 Vasicine and other quinazoline alkaloids have been confirmed in Galega species. 16 Other constituents, including peganine, various flavonoids, saponins, and tannins, are also present in goat's rue. 1 , 2 , 17 , 18

Uses and Pharmacology

Reductions in blood sugar levels

Galegine in goat's rue has been associated with marked reductions in blood sugar levels. Studies in the 1970s demonstrated galegine and other guanidine derivatives reduced blood sugar levels. 2

Animal data

Alcoholic extracts of goat's rue were shown to exhibit hypoglycemic effects in diabetic rabbits. 19 A report found galegin lowered blood sugar by 32% in diabetic rats. 20 Another study investigated a mechanism as to how fractions of the plant exert its hypoglycemic effects. It was concluded that inhibition of transport of glucose across monolayers of human intestinal cells takes place in a dose-dependent manner. 21 Another report compared the hypoglycemic actions of G. officinalis to others. 22 The chromium salt content may also possess antidiabetic effects. 1

Clinical data

A review evaluating several alternative therapies for diabetes found all reports encouraging as new possibilities in treatment but advises further examinations in this area before establishment of use. 23 Therefore, goat rue's role may be of some value as supportive treatment or in early stages of adult onset diabetes with a physician's guidance, but it may not be completely justified because of the severity of the disease and the availability of better alternatives. 2 , 3

Weight reduction
Animal data

A reversible, marked weight-reducing effect of Galega was demonstrated in mice, regardless of food intake. Post-mortem examinations revealed a striking absence of body fat related to the plant. 24 , 25

Clinical data

Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of goat's rue for weight reduction.

Diuresis

Goat's rue is also a well-known, useful diuretic. 2 , 3 Also, refer to the Herbal Diuretics monograph in the Appendix. Because of this characteristic, goat's rue may be considered useful for disturbances related to secretion of fluids, such as GI ailments (eg, fermentive dyspepsia, gastrocardiac syndrome, diarrhea). Goat's rue is said to stimulate the adrenal glands and pancreas and to aid in “glandular disturbances.” None of these claims, however, are clinically documented. 3

Animal/Clinical data

Research reveals no animal or clinical data regarding the use of goat's rue for diuresis.

Increased breast milk production
Animal data

Goat's rue increases breast milk production. 2 Reports of the lactogenic effects of the plant exist. 26 Goat's rue given to cows would increase milk secretion from 35% to 50%. 5 Goat's rue is recommended in veterinary medicine to stimulate milk secretion. 1

Clinical data

Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of goat's rue for increasing breast milk production.

Other uses

Goat's rue also is used as a tonic, liver-protectant, 3 and an inhibitor of platelet aggregation. 27 , 28

Dosage

There are no recent clinical studies of goat's rue herb to provide a basis for dosage recommendations. Classical use of the herb was 2 g in an infusion. 29

Pregnancy/Lactation

Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking.

Interactions

Possible interactions may exist with other hypoglycemic medications. 21

Goat's rue may interfere with absorption of iron and other minerals. 30

Adverse Reactions

One text advises discontinuation of goat's rue preparation if symptoms such as headache, jitteriness, or weakness occur. The safety of the plant has not yet been proven in pregnancy or breastfeeding; therefore, caution is warranted with its use during these times. 30

Toxicology

In humans, danger of intoxication has been observed with other guanidine derivatives. Most biguanidine preparations developed in the 1950s have been withdrawn from the market. 1 Use of goat's rue to treat diabetes should only proceed under professional supervision, as there is still uncertainty to its effectiveness. 2 , 3

Bibliography

1. Bisset N, ed. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals . Stuttgart, Germany: CRC Press. 1994;220-221.
2. Chevallier A. Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants . New York, NY: DK Publishing. 1996;212.
3. Blumenthal M, ed. The Complete German Commission E Monographs . Austin, TX: American Botanical Council. 1998;332.
4. Secrets et vertus des plantes médicinales . Paris: Sélection du Reader's Digest, 1985.
5. http://botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/r/ruegoa21.html
6. http://www.ibiblio.org/herbmed/eclectic/kings/galega.html
7. Reuter G, Barthel A. Guanidino-acetic acid as a precursor of galegin in Galega officinalis L. [in German]. Pharmazie . 1967;22:261.
8. Schafer J, Stein M. On the variability of substances contained in the goat's rue ( Galega officinalis L.) [in German]. Naturwissenschaften . 1967;54:205-206.
9. Barthel A, Reuter G. Biochemistry and physiology of isoprenoid guanidines, especially (4-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)guanidine in Galega officinalis . Pharmazie . 1968;23:26-33.
10. Desvages G, Olomucki M. Guanidine derivatives of Galega officinalis ; galegine and hydroxygalegine. Bull Soc Chim Fr . 1969;9:3229-3232.
11. Reuter G, Barthel A, Steiniger J. Metabolism of guanidino-acetic acid in Galega officinalis L. Pharmazie . 1969;24:358.
12. Leonard N. Synthesis of 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methyl-cis-2-butenyl)guanidine, the naturally occurring hydroxygalegine. J Chem Soc Chem Commun . 1972;3:133-134.
13. Rosca M, Tamas M. Studies on Galegae Herba products. Farmacia (Bucharest) . 1988;36:217-221.
14. Champavier Y, Allais D, Chulia A, Kaouadji M. Acetylated and non-acetylated flavonol triglycosides from Galega officinalis . Chem Pharm Bull . 2000;48:281-282.
15. Champavier Y, Comte G, Vercauteren J, Allais D, Chulia A. Norterpenoid and sesquiterpenoid glucosides from Juniperus phoenicea and Galega officinalis . Phytochemistry . 1999;50:1219-1223.
16. Laakso I, Virkajarvi P, Airaksinen H, Varis E. Determination of vasicine and related alkaloids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatrogr . 1990;505:424-428.
17. Shevchuk O. Flavonoids in flowers of Galega officinalis . Khim Biol . 1967;29:544-547.
18. Funkunaga T, Nishiya K, Takeya K, Itokawa H. Studies on the constituents of goat's rue ( Galega officinalis L.). Chem Pharm Bull . 1987;35:1610-1614.
19. Shukyurov D, Guseinov D, Yuzbashinskaya P. Effect of preparations from rue leaves on carbohydrate metabolism in a normal state and during alloxan diabetes. Dokl Acd Nauk Az SSSR . 1974;30:58-60.
20. Petricic J, Kalodera Z. Galegin in the goat's rue herb: its toxicity, antidiabetic activity and content determination. Acta Pharm Jugosl . 1982;32:219-223.
21. Neef H, Augustijns P, Declercq P, Declerck P, Laekeman G. Inhibitory effects of Galega officinalis on glucose transport across monolayers of human intestinal epithelia cells (Caco-2). Pharm Pharmacol Lett . 1996;6:86-89.
22. Lemus I, Garcia R, Delvillar E, Knop G. Hypoglycaemic activity of four plants used in Chilean popular medicine. Phytother Res . 1999;13:91-94.
23. Stosic D, Bogavac P, Panov I. Medicinal plant raw materials with antihyperglycemic activity. Arh Farm . 1993;43:35-41.
24. Palit P, Furman BL, Gray AI. Novel weight reducing activity of ethanol-water extract of Galega officinalis . J Pharm Pharmacol . 1998;50(suppl, British Pharmaceutical Conference 1998):80.
25. Palit P, Furman BL, Gray AI. Novel weight-reducing activity of Galega officinalis in mice. J Pharm Pharmacol . 1999;51:1313-1319.
26. Heiss H. Clinical and experimental contribution on the question of the lactogenic effect of Galega officinalis [in German]. Wien Med Wochenschr . 1968;118:546-548.
27. Atanasov AT, Spasov V. Inhibiting effect of desalted extract from Galega officinalis L. on platelet aggregation. Folia Med (Plovdiv) . 1999;41:46-50.
28. Atanasov AT, Spasov V. Inhibiting and disaggregating effect of gel-filtered Galega officinalis L. herbal extract on platelet aggregation. J Ethnopharmacol . 2000;69:235-240.
29. PDR for Herbal Medicines . 2nd ed. Montvale, N.J.: Medical Economics Co.; 2000. p.353
30. http://thriveonline.oxygen.com/health/Library/vitamins/vitamin147.html

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